Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae
Etymology: Sympterygia: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
Four nominal species of Psammobatis (asper, caudispina, chilcae, maculatus), all from Hildebrand, 1946, are considered valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. May 2011: Ref. 86870) following Chirichigno & Vélez (1998), but J. McEachran confirmed their synonym status of Sympterygia brevicaudata (Cope, 1877) (pers. comm., 11/2003).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 18 m (Ref. 58018). Subtropical; 3°S - 37°S
Southeast Pacific: Ecuador to central Chile. Two specimens have been recorded from Uruguay but these may be in error.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Max. length (Johnny Labbe, pers. comm., 2000).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.3 - 21, mean 19.5 (based on 100 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00257 - 0.01023), b=3.12 (2.95 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .