Epinephelus areolatus, Areolate grouper : fisheries, aquaculture

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Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775)

Areolate grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Epinephelus areolatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus areolatus (Areolate grouper)
Epinephelus areolatus
Picture by Allen, G.R.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 6 - 200 m (Ref. 2334).   熱帶; 35°N - 33°S, 29°E - 180°E (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to Natal, South Africa and east to Fiji, north to Japan, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and northern Australia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Appears to be absent from Micronesia, Polynesia, and most islands of the western Indian Ocean. Often confused with Epinephelus chlorostigma.
印度-太平洋: 紅海與波斯灣到南非的納塔爾而且東至斐濟,北至日本, 南至阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819) 與澳洲北部。 最近從東加記錄。 (參考文獻 53797) 似乎密克羅尼西亞,玻利尼西亞與西印度洋大多數的島嶼沒有出現。 時常與 密點石斑魚〔Epinephelus chlorostigma〕 互相混淆。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 20.0, range 19 - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 27266); common length : 35.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5450); 最大體重: 1.4 kg (Ref. 27266); 最大年齡: 15 年 (Ref. 27352)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 15-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body depth less than head length, 2.7-3.3 in SL (for specimens 14-31 cm SL); head length 2.4-2.8 in SL; D XI,15-17; pectoral rays 17-19 (usually 17-18); body scales ctenoid, cycloid scales on thorax and ventrally on abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; anal fin of adults rounded to slightly angular, longest soft ray 2.0-2.6 in HL; gill rakers of first gill arch 8-10 + 14-16; pyloric caeca 11-17; preopercle with 2-7 enlarged serrae at the angle; upper edge of operculum straight or slightly convex; midlateral part of lower jaw with 2 rows of teeth; lateral-line scales 49-53; caudal fin slightly convex in juveniles, truncate or slightly emarginate in adults. Colour of head, body, and fins pale, covered with numerous close-set brown, brownish yellow or greenish yellow spots (becoming smaller and increase in number as growth increases), the largest about size of pupil, those on front of head smaller than those on operculum; pectoral fins pale, with small dark spots on the rays; posterior edge of caudal fin with a distinct white margin (Ref. 39231, 90102).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Usually found in seagrass beds or on fine sediment bottoms near rocky reefs, dead coral, or alcyonarians (Ref. 5222), in shallow continental shelf waters (Ref. 27353). Juveniles are common at water depths to 80 m (Ref. 6390). Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Feed on fish and benthic invertebrates, primarily prawns and crabs (Ref. 4787, 27354). Caught with hook-and-line, traps, and trawls; common in the markets of Hong Kong, Singapore and probably throughout its range (Ref. 39231).

在水淺的大陸棚水域中通常發現於海草床或在沉積良好的底部鄰近岩礁,死珊瑚或 alcyonarians(參考文獻 5222) 上。 (參考文獻 27353) 稚魚是普遍於水深到 80 公尺。 (參考文獻 6390) 當這麼做的時候,可能在限制的期間產卵而且形成魚群。 (參考文獻 27352) 卵與初生仔魚可能大洋性。 (參考文獻 6390) 捕食魚與底棲的無脊椎動物, 主要地蝦與螃蟹.(參考文獻 4787,27354)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

印度-太平洋: 紅海與波斯灣到南非的納塔爾而且東至斐濟,北至日本, 南至阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819) 與澳洲北部。 最近從東加記錄。 (參考文獻 53797) 似乎密克羅尼西亞,玻利尼西亞與西印度洋大多數的島嶼沒有出現。 時常與 密點石斑魚〔Epinephelus chlorostigma〕 互相混淆。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 25 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

更多資訊

俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

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參考文獻
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養殖資訊
品種
遺傳學
基因序列
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Mass conversion
合作者
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
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Otoliths
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.4 - 28.4, mean 26.9 (based on 1165 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.01001 - 0.01318), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.31; tm=2; tmax=25; Fec = 22,128).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 2 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.