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Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775)

Areolate grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Epinephelus areolatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus areolatus (Areolate grouper)
Epinephelus areolatus
Picture by Allen, G.R.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut berasosiasi dengan karang; kisaran kedalaman 6 - 200 m (Ref. 2334).   Tropical; 35°N - 33°S, 29°E - 180°E (Ref. 5222)

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to Natal, South Africa and east to Fiji, north to Japan, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and northern Australia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Appears to be absent from Micronesia, Polynesia, and most islands of the western Indian Ocean. Often confused with Epinephelus chlorostigma.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 20.0, range 19 - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 27266); common length : 35.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 5450); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 1.4 kg (Ref. 27266); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 15 Tahun (Ref. 27352)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 11; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 15-17; Duri dubur 3; Sirip dubur lunak: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body depth less than head length, 2.7-3.3 in SL (for specimens 14-31 cm SL); head length 2.4-2.8 in SL; D XI,15-17; pectoral rays 17-19 (usually 17-18); body scales ctenoid, cycloid scales on thorax and ventrally on abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; anal fin of adults rounded to slightly angular, longest soft ray 2.0-2.6 in HL; gill rakers of first gill arch 8-10 + 14-16; pyloric caeca 11-17; preopercle with 2-7 enlarged serrae at the angle; upper edge of operculum straight or slightly convex; midlateral part of lower jaw with 2 rows of teeth; lateral-line scales 49-53; caudal fin slightly convex in juveniles, truncate or slightly emarginate in adults. Colour of head, body, and fins pale, covered with numerous close-set brown, brownish yellow or greenish yellow spots (becoming smaller and increase in number as growth increases), the largest about size of pupil, those on front of head smaller than those on operculum; pectoral fins pale, with small dark spots on the rays; posterior edge of caudal fin with a distinct white margin (Ref. 39231, 90102).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Usually found in seagrass beds or on fine sediment bottoms near rocky reefs, dead coral, or alcyonarians (Ref. 5222), in shallow continental shelf waters (Ref. 27353). Juveniles are common at water depths to 80 m (Ref. 6390). Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Feed on fish and benthic invertebrates, primarily prawns and crabs (Ref. 4787, 27354). Caught with hook-and-line, traps, and trawls; common in the markets of Hong Kong, Singapore and probably throughout its range (Ref. 39231).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | mitra

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)

  kurang bimbang (LC) ; Date assessed: 25 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: komersial; Budidaya air: komersial
FAO(Budidaya air: production; Perikanan: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

informasi lanjut

Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.4 - 28.4, mean 26.9 (based on 1165 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.01001 - 0.01318), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (K=0.31; tm=2; tmax=25; Fec = 22,128).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 2 stock assessments.
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Very high.