Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Trachinidae
Etymology: Trachinus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 150 m (Ref. 6790), usually 30 - 60 m (Ref. 6790). Subtropical
Eastern Atlantic: Gibraltar to the Gulf of Guinea; probably further south. Known from the Mediterranean (Ref. 231).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6790)
Found on sand and mud bottoms on the continental shelf from shoreline to a depth of about 150 m (Ref. 6790). Oviparous (Ref. 4675). Eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4675).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roux, C., 1990. Trachinidae. p. 893-895. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6790)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 24.4, mean 17.3 (based on 140 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5059 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00484 - 0.01430), b=3.01 (2.86 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .