Raja miraletus, Brown ray : fisheries, gamefish

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Raja miraletus Linnaeus, 1758

Brown ray
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Raja miraletus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Raja miraletus (Brown ray)
Raja miraletus
Picture by Furlan, B.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates) > Rajinae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 深度上下限 17 - 462 m (Ref. 56504), usually 50 - 150 m (Ref. 27121).   亞熱帶的; 44°N - 35°S

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: northern Portugal and throughout the Mediterranean to Madeira and South Africa. Reported from the Canary Islands (Ref. 3167) but occurrence needs verification (Ref. 6808). Also in southwestern part of the Indian Ocean.
東大西洋: 葡萄牙北部與在地中海到馬得拉群島與南非各處。 記錄來自加納利群島 (參考文獻 3167)了,但是發生需要確認。 (參考文獻 6808) 也在印度洋的西南方部份中。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 44 - ? cm
Max length : 63.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 39256); 59.7 cm TL (female); common length : 35.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 2683)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0. Snout short and bluntly pointed; disc angular (Ref. 5578). Upper surface prickly only in young, nearly smooth in adults, underside smooth (Ref. 3167). Upper surface ochre to reddish-brown with scattered dark spots, underside white (Ref. 3167); two bright blue eyespots centered on the pectoral bases (Ref. 5578); may have a small dark spot on tip of snout (Ref. 2708).
吻短与顿尖的; 体盘有角的.(参考文献 5578) 上表皮多刺的只在幼鱼中, 几乎平滑当成鱼时, 下面平滑的.(参考文献 3167) 上表皮黄土色到红褐色的有分散的深色斑点, 腹面白色的;(参考文献 3167) 二个淡蓝色眼斑在胸鳍基底上集中了;(参考文献 5578) 可能在吻尖上有一个小的深色斑点。 (参考文献 2708)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found over soft bottoms of the shelf and the uppermost slope (Ref. 5578). Depth range from 17-300 m, and up to depth of 462 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on all kinds of benthic animals, also on fish offal (Ref. 5578). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.2-4.6 cm long and 2.7-2.9 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 40-72 eggs are lain by an individual in a year (Ref. 41250). Caught by ski-boat anglers (Ref. 5578).

发现在大陆棚的软质底部与最上面的斜坡上了。 (参考文献 5578) 来自 17-300 公尺的深度范围, 在爱奥尼亚的海洋东部中并且向上到 462 公尺的深度。 (参考文献 56504) 捕食各种的底栖动物,也吃鱼内脏。 (参考文献 5578) 卵生的。 明显的成对出现。 幼鱼可能倾向跟随大的个体, 例如他们的母亲.(参考文献 205) 卵为长方形鞘囊具有僵硬的触角沈积在沙滩或泥滩的角落.(参考文献 205) 卵鞘是 4.2-4.6 公分长与 2.7-2.9 公分宽的.(参考文献 41250) 大約 40-72個卵在一年中藉著一個個體生產。 (參考文獻 41250) 被雪橇船垂釣者捕獲了。 (參考文獻 5578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). With egg-cases laid from spring to summer (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).東大西洋: 葡萄牙北部與在地中海到馬得拉群島與南非各處。 記錄來自加納利群島 (參考文獻 3167)了,但是發生需要確認。 (參考文獻 6808) 也在印度洋的西南方部份中。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 September 2003

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

更多信息

俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
年龄范围
成长
体长-体重
体长-体长
体长-频率
形态测量图
型态特徵
仔鱼
稚鱼动力学
入添量
丰度
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

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特别资料

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网络资源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(基因组, 核苷酸) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia(转至, 搜寻) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 13.1 - 25.6, mean 17.6 (based on 383 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00214 (0.00174 - 0.00263), b=3.24 (3.19 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Fec assumed to be <100).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.