Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 4482), usually ? - 30 m (Ref. 26999). Tropical; 14°N - 17°S
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Mangue Grande, Angola.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683)
Mainly in littoral and coastal waters. Enter estuaries (Ref. 4482). Feed on fish and shrimps (Ref. 28587).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and J.L. Russo, 1981. A revision of the scaly toadfishes, genus Batrachoides, with descriptions of two new species from the eastern Pacific. Bull. Mar. Sci. 31(2):197-233. (Ref. 30719)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28, mean 27.1 (based on 50 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .