Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 37 - 750 m (Ref. 26268), usually 320 - 550 m (Ref. 26268). Deep-water; 40°N - 22°S, 88°W - 30°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: off New Jersey southward along eastern United States, Gulf of Mexico, off the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles at Puerto Rico, throughout southern Caribbean Sea from Honduras to Venezuela, and from Trinidad and Tobago to southeastern Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26268)
Often found in deepwater soft mud substrates on outer continental shelf and upper continental slope (Ref. 26268).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182. (Ref. 26268)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.4 - 17, mean 12 (based on 96 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00296 - 0.01410), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .