Belone belone, Garfish : fisheries, gamefish

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Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1760)

Garfish
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Belone belone   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Belone belone
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Classification / Names Nombres comunes | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterígios (peces con aletas radiadas) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Belonidae (Needlefishes)
Etymology: Belone: Greek, belone = needle; any fish with sharp pointed snout; also Pierre Belon, 1517-64, French zoologist born in Le Mans. Professor at the College de France, author of " La nature et diversité des poissons", 1551 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecología

; marino; salobre; oceanodromo (Ref. 51243); rango de profundidad 0 - ? m.   Temperate; 65°N - 14°N, 32°W - 42°E

Distribución Países | Áreas FAO | Ecosistemas | Ocurrencias, apariciones | Point map | Introducciones | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Three subspecies were recognized by Collette and Parin (1970, Ref. 34977) Belone belone belone (Linnaeus, 1761) (Northeast Atlantic); Belone belone euxini Günther, 1866 (Black Sea and Sea of Azov); Belone belone acus Risso, 1827 (Mediterranean Sea and adjacent parts of Atlantic Ocean, Madeira, Canary Islands, Azores, and south to Cape Verde (Ref. 50279); subspecies Belone belone gracilis Lowe, 1839 (France to the Canary Islands including the Mediterranean) in Collette & Parin, 1990 (Ref. 5757).

Length at first maturity / Tamaño / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 104 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 113079); common length : 45.0 cm SL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 3397); peso máximo publicado: 1.4 kg (Ref. 113079)

Short description Morfología | Morfometría

Espinas dorsales (total): 0; Radios blandos dorsales (total): 16-20; Radios blandos anales: 19 - 23. Jaw teeth comparatively large and widely spaced. Vertebrae 75-84. Vomerine teeth present at lengths greater than 20 cam. Lower jaw a little longer than upper jaw. Juveniles with greatly elongated jaw, without black posterior dorsal fin lobe.

Biología     Glosario (por ej. epibenthic)

Lives close to the surface and has a migratory pattern similar to the mackerel (Ref. 35388). Feeds on small fishes, particularly clupeids and Engraulis (in the Black Sea). Leaps out of the water when hooked. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205). Utilized fresh and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Madurez | Reproducción | Puesta | Huevos | Fecundidad | Larva

Oviparous (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | Referencias | Coordinador : Collette, Bruce B. | Colaboradores

Collette, B.B. and N.V. Parin, 1986. Belonidae. p. 604-609. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 5505)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 10 July 2012

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Pesquerías: comercial; pesca deportiva: si
FAO(pesquerías: produccin; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Fuentes de Internet

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 8.8 - 20, mean 11.3 (based on 548 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00093 (0.00076 - 0.00115), b=3.05 (2.99 - 3.11), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nivel trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliencia (Ref. 120179):  Medio, población duplicada en un tiempo mínimo de 1.4-4.4 años (tm=2; Fec=1000).
Prior r = 0.43, 95% CL = 0.29 - 0.65, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.