Belone belone, Garfish : fisheries, gamefish

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Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1760)

Garfish
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Belone belone   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Belone belone (Garfish)
Belone belone
Picture by Østergaard, T.

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Belonidae (Needlefishes)
Etymology: Belone: Greek, belone = needle; any fish with sharp pointed snout; also Pierre Belon, 1517-64, French zoologist born in Le Mans. Professor at the College de France, author of " La nature et diversité des poissons", 1551 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 0 - ? m.   Temperate; 65°N - 14°N, 32°W - 42°E

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Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Three subspecies were recognized by Collette and Parin (1970, Ref. 34977) Belone belone belone (Linnaeus, 1761) (Northeast Atlantic); Belone belone euxini Günther, 1866 (Black Sea and Sea of Azov); Belone belone acus Risso, 1827 (Mediterranean Sea and adjacent parts of Atlantic Ocean, Madeira, Canary Islands, Azores, and south to Cape Verde (Ref. 50279); subspecies Belone belone gracilis Lowe, 1839 (France to the Canary Islands including the Mediterranean) in Collette & Parin, 1990 (Ref. 5757).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 104 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 113079); common length : 45.0 cm SL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 3397); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 1.4 kg (Ref. 113079)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 16-20; Anale zachte stralen: 19 - 23. Jaw teeth comparatively large and widely spaced. Vertebrae 75-84. Vomerine teeth present at lengths greater than 20 cam. Lower jaw a little longer than upper jaw. Juveniles with greatly elongated jaw, without black posterior dorsal fin lobe.

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Lives close to the surface and has a migratory pattern similar to the mackerel (Ref. 35388). Feeds on small fishes, particularly clupeids and Engraulis (in the Black Sea). Leaps out of the water when hooked. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205). Utilized fresh and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Oviparous (Ref. 205).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Medewerkers

Collette, B.B. and N.V. Parin, 1986. Belonidae. p. 604-609. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 5505)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 10 July 2012

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 8.8 - 20, mean 11.3 (based on 548 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00093 (0.00076 - 0.00115), b=3.05 (2.99 - 3.11), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (tm=2; Fec=1000).
Prior r = 0.43, 95% CL = 0.29 - 0.65, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   High.