分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Leuciscus: Greek, leykiskos = white mullet (Ref. 45335); leuciscus: From Greek leucos = bright, shining white. More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 1 - ? m. Temperate; 4°C - 22°C (Ref. 41616); 72°N - 41°N, 10°W - 155°E
Europe and Asia: North, Baltic, White and Barents Sea basins; Caspian basin, in Volga and Ural drainages; Black Sea basin, from Danube to Dniepr drainages; Atlantic basin, in Seine drainage; Mediterranean basin from Rhône to Arch drainages (France). Only very localized in Danube main river in Romania, in Scandinavia north of 69°N and most of cenral Finland. Populations from Siberia and East Asia usually referred to Leuciscus leuciscus are distinct species, Leuciscus baicalensis and Leuciscus dzungaricus (Ref. 59043). Has become widespread in Europe and gained access to Ireland as a bait fish. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 17.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 30578); common length : 15.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 556); 最大公表体重: 1.0 kg (Ref. 30578); 最大記録サイズ: 16 年 (Ref. 41616)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 2 - 3; 背鰭 (合計): 7-9; 肛門の骨 3; 臀鰭: 8 - 9; 脊つい: 42 - 46. Diagnosed from congeners in Europe by the following characters: subinferior or subterminal mouth; subequal jaw, upper jaw slightly longer; upper lip tip about level with center of eye; not projecting snout; articulation of lower jaw distinctly behind anterior margin of eye; horizontal branch of preoperculum shorter than vertical branch; and 40-50 + 1-2 scales on lateral line (Ref. 59043). Rarely longer than 30 cm TL; normally 47-52 scales in lateral line; anal fin concave; caudal fin forked with 19 rays (Ref. 41616).
Gregarious fish which swims near the surface (Ref. 30578). Inhabits moderate to fast-flowing large streams to large rivers with rock or gravel bottom. Adults aggregate in dense swarms in winter in the lower reaches of rivers or backwaters and often migrate to spawning streams in autumn and overwinter there. Juveniles spend winter in cavities along the shores. Early juveniles occur in very shallow shoreline habitats and when they grow, they leave the shores for faster-flowing waters. Feeding larvae thrive along shores. Prey on small invertebrates. Spawns in fast-flowing water on shallow gravel beds, often in small tributaries (Ref. 59043). Breeds in March and April (Ref. 30578). Pale yellow eggs are found attached to gravel and stones in shallow, flowing water (Ref. 41678).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Regularly undertake migration of some tens of km to spawning sites, which are often situated in tributaries. Males form large aggregations, each male defending a small territory. Females lay sticky eggs into excavaitons made in gravel (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Potential pest (Ref. 13686)
水産業: 興味がない; ゲームフィッシュ: はい; 餌: usually
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00395 - 0.01211), b=3.11 (2.97 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.18-0.25; tm=3-4; tmax=10).
弱み (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .