Leuciscus leuciscus, Common dace : gamefish, bait

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Leuciscus leuciscus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common dace
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Leuciscus leuciscus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Leuciscus: Greek, leykiskos = white mullet (Ref. 45335);  leuciscus: From Greek leucos = bright, shining white.  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - ? m.   溫帶; 4°C - 22°C (Ref. 41616); 72°N - 41°N, 10°W - 155°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: North, Baltic, White and Barents Sea basins; Caspian basin, in Volga and Ural drainages; Black Sea basin, from Danube to Dniepr drainages; Atlantic basin, in Seine drainage; Mediterranean basin from Rhône to Arch drainages (France). Only very localized in Danube main river in Romania, in Scandinavia north of 69°N and most of cenral Finland. Populations from Siberia and East Asia usually referred to Leuciscus leuciscus are distinct species, Leuciscus baicalensis and Leuciscus dzungaricus (Ref. 59043). Has become widespread in Europe and gained access to Ireland as a bait fish. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
歐洲與亞洲: 已經在歐洲變得廣泛分佈而且進入愛爾蘭作為一個誘餌魚.(參考文獻 1739) 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 17.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30578); common length : 15.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 1.0 kg (Ref. 30578); 最大年齡: 16 年 (Ref. 41616)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 2 - 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 7-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8 - 9; 脊椎骨: 42 - 46. Diagnosed from congeners in Europe by the following characters: subinferior or subterminal mouth; subequal jaw, upper jaw slightly longer; upper lip tip about level with center of eye; not projecting snout; articulation of lower jaw distinctly behind anterior margin of eye; horizontal branch of preoperculum shorter than vertical branch; and 40-50 + 1-2 scales on lateral line (Ref. 59043). Rarely longer than 30 cm TL; normally 47-52 scales in lateral line; anal fin concave; caudal fin forked with 19 rays (Ref. 41616).
很少長度超過 30 公分TL; 通常在側線中的 47-52個鱗片; 臀鰭凹曲; 尾鰭以19個鰭條分岔。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Gregarious fish which swims near the surface (Ref. 30578). Inhabits moderate to fast-flowing large streams to large rivers with rock or gravel bottom. Adults aggregate in dense swarms in winter in the lower reaches of rivers or backwaters and often migrate to spawning streams in autumn and overwinter there. Juveniles spend winter in cavities along the shores. Early juveniles occur in very shallow shoreline habitats and when they grow, they leave the shores for faster-flowing waters. Feeding larvae thrive along shores. Prey on small invertebrates. Spawns in fast-flowing water on shallow gravel beds, often in small tributaries (Ref. 59043). Breeds in March and April (Ref. 30578). Pale yellow eggs are found attached to gravel and stones in shallow, flowing water (Ref. 41678).

在表面巡游的群居的 魚.(參考文獻 30578) 偏愛河與清澈寒冷的湖上面範圍。 吃昆蟲,蠕蟲,蝸牛, 與很少地植物。 在波羅地海東部中進入半淡鹹水。 繁殖發生於三月與四月。 (參考文獻 30578) 淡黃色的卵被發現在流動的淺灘中依附於礫石與石頭。 (參考文獻 41678)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Regularly undertake migration of some tens of km to spawning sites, which are often situated in tributaries. Males form large aggregations, each male defending a small territory. Females lay sticky eggs into excavaitons made in gravel (Ref. 59043).歐洲與亞洲: 已經在歐洲變得廣泛分佈而且進入愛爾蘭作為一個誘餌魚.(參考文獻 1739) 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物 (Ref. 13686)





人類使用

漁業: 沒有興趣; 游釣魚種: 是的; 誘餌: usually
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource |

更多資訊

參考文獻
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遺傳學
基因序列
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加工
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Otoliths
腦重體重比
眼睛色素

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00395 - 0.01211), b=3.11 (2.97 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.9   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.18-0.25; tm=3-4; tmax=10).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .