Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays)
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
(Skates) > Rajinae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut dasar (demersal); kisaran kedalaman 10 - 380 m (Ref. 6808). Temperate; 60°N - 21°N, 18°W - 24°E
Eastern Atlantic: Shetland Islands to Morocco, Rio de Oro (Western Sahara), and Madeira.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm 90.2, range 60 - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 41333); 125.0 cm TL (female); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 14.3 kg (Ref. 40637)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 0. Upper surface wholly prickly, except in juveniles; underside only prickly along front margins of disc; orbital thorns separate; a regular median row of 40-45 thorns in juveniles and adult females, interrupted on back in males; 60-90 tooth rows; upper surface ochre, with numerous small dark spots to margins of disc, underside white (Ref. 3167).
Found on sand and sand-rock bottoms (Ref. 6808). Feed on all kinds of benthic animals (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 10.0-14.3 cm long and 5.8-9.0 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 40-90 eggs are laid per individual every year (Ref. 41250).
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Spawning mainly from February to August with at least 30 egg-cases laid (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil; Ikan buruan: ya
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanMass conversion
muat turun XML
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.1 - 16.2, mean 10.3 (based on 462 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00224 (0.00144 - 0.00348), b=3.27 (3.15 - 3.39), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278
): Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (K=0.12-0.19; tmax=15; Fec=40).
Prior r = 0.20, 95% CL = 0.11 - 0.36, Based on 1 stock assessment.
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .