Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển; Thuộc về nước lợ Cùng sống ở rạn san hô; Mức độ sâu 50 - 200 m (Ref. 47690). Subtropical; 32°N - 30°S, 30°E - 169°E
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, as far south as Durban in South Africa, to southern Japan and northeastern Australia, east to New Caledonia.
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 47690); common length : 20.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 47690)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 3 - 4; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 40-45; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 0; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 30 - 33. This species is distinguished by its very deep body, almost triangular, extremely compressed; sharp-edged breast; greatest body depth below lateral line at least 4 times greater than greatest body depth above lateral line; anal fin very long-based, commencing at point of insertion of pelvic fins, uniformly very low; dorsal spines (X in juveniles) reducing in number with increasing age. Colour of body with upper sides deep metallic blue, the rest silvery, a row of round to ovoid, dark slaty-blue spots above and below lateral line, sometimes a few additional spots above and below these rows; pelvic fins with a trace of blue, other fins hyaline or slightly dusky (Ref. 47690).
Inhabits deeper coastal waters near the bottom on both the continental shelves and around major island groups; sometimes in river estuaries (Ref. 47690, 48635). Found in schools (Ref. 47690, 48635). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5213). Readily dries in air without salting (Ref. 4375, 48635). Caught in trawls and by beach seine, but mainly by trawling, often incidentally. Marketed fresh and dried (Ref. 47690). Minimum depth from Ref. 30573.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Chín muồi sinh dục | Sự tái sinh sản | Đẻ trứng | Các trứng | Sự sinh sản | Ấu trùng
Heemstra, P.C., 1984. Menidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3465)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: Tính thương mại
Các công cụ
Các nguồn internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.8 - 27.6, mean 24.4 (based on 503 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02089 (0.00859 - 0.05083), b=3.03 (2.82 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Chiêù cao, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là dưới 15 tháng (K=0.19-1.2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .