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Stegastes variabilis (Castelnau, 1855)

Cocoa damselfish
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Stegastes variabilis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Stegastes variabilis (Cocoa damselfish)
Stegastes variabilis
Picture by Luiz, Jr., O.

Classification / Names Nombres comunes | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterígios (peces con aletas radiadas) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Pomacentridae (Damselfishes) > Pomacentrinae
Etymology: Stegastes: Greek, stegastos, -e, -on = covered (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Castelnau.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecología

; marino asociado a arrecife; no migratorio; rango de profundidad 0 - 30 m (Ref. 7247).   Tropical; 6°S - 30°S, 50°W - 31°W

Distribución Países | Áreas FAO | Ecosistemas | Ocurrencias, apariciones | Point map | Introducciones | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Brazil. Caribbean (described from Cuban specimens) species refers to Stegastes xanthurus (formerly considered as a junior synonym of S. variabilis). Populations from Brazil and the Caribbean are genetically very distinct (Roberstson & van Tassell, 2012; accessed 08 August 2016; http://biogeodb.stri.si.edu/caribbean/en/thefishes/species/3884).

Tamaño / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.5 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 9626)

Short description Morfología | Morfometría

Espinas dorsales (total): 12; Radios blandos dorsales (total): 14-17; Espinas anales 2; Radios blandos anales: 12 - 15. Caudal fin slightly forked, with rounded lobes. Dark brown or blue above, shading to yellow below. Narrow, dark, obliquely vertical lines on side. Snout and forehead have bright blue lines. Small dark spot in pectoral axil, another on top of caudal peduncle (Ref. 26938).

Biología     Glosario (por ej. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit inshore and offshore coral reefs. They feed mainly on benthic algae but also on sponges, ascidians and anemones while juveniles feed on invertebrates like harpacticoid copepods and nemerteans (Ref. 9626). Often solitary (Ref. 9626). Juveniles are aggressively territorial (Ref. 9626). Aggressive when breeding (Ref. 9710). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Taken incidentally in traps and small-meshed beach nets (Ref. 5217).

Life cycle and mating behavior Madurez | Reproducción | Puesta | Huevos | Fecundidad | Larva

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | Referencias | Coordinador : Allen, Gerald R. | Colaboradores

Allen, G.R., 1991. Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)


CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Acuario: Comercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.5 - 27.5, mean 25.9 (based on 139 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00979 - 0.02945), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Resiliencia (Ref. 69278):  Alto, población duplicada en un tiempo mínimo inferior a 15 meses (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .