Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); proeliare: From the Greek etheo=to strain, and stoma=mouth; proeliare Latin, meaning to battle (Ref. 79012).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 38°N - 29°N
North America: ranges from Choctawhatchee River in Florida to San Jacinto River in Texas, and north in the Mississippi River basin to southern Illinois and eastern Oklahoma in the USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 3.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 2 years (Ref. 12193)
Adults occur in standing or slow-flowing water, usually in vegetation over mud (Ref. 5723); found in streams, swamps and oxbow lakes (Ref. 10294). Feed on midge larvae and microcrustaceans, with isopods, amphipods, and mayfly nymphs important seasonally (Ref. 10294). Eggs are found attached to the substrate unguarded (Ref. 7043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are found attached to the substrate unguarded (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00204 - 0.01288), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=2; Fec=26-116).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .