Merluccius bilinearis, Silver hake : fisheries

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Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchill, 1814)

Silver hake
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Merluccius bilinearis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Merluccius bilinearis (Silver hake)
Merluccius bilinearis
Picture by Flescher, D.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Mitchill.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 居于水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 55 - 914 m (Ref. 58452).   溫帶; 55°N - 24°N, 80°W - 42°W (Ref. 54581)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Northwest Atlantic: coast of Canada and USA from Bell Isle Channel to the Bahamas; most common from southern Newfoundland to South Carolina.
西北大西洋: 來自鈴島峽道到巴哈馬的加拿大與美國的海岸; 最常見的從紐芬蘭南部到南卡羅萊那州。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 23.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length : 37.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length :65 cm TL (female); 最大体重: 2.3 kg (Ref. 1371); 最大年龄: 12 年 (Ref. 1371)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 1; 背的软条 (总数): 47-54; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 37 - 41. Head large, about 30% of SL . Pectoral fins long, reaching origin of anal fin. Overall color is silvery, somewhat brownish on back, whitish on belly.
头部大又大约 30% 的 SL 。 胸鳍长的, 达到臀鳍起点。 整体的色彩是银色的, 略微褐色的背面, 微白色的在腹面上。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Abundant on sandy grounds and strays into shallower waters. A voracious predator with cannibalistic habits. Individuals over 40 cm TL prey on fishes such as gadoids and herring, while smaller ones feed on crustaceans, i.e. euphausiids and pandalids; food also includes gaspereau, myctophids, smelt, silversides, mackerel, sand lance, butterfish, snakeblennies, longhorn sculpins and squids (Ref. 5951). The smallest specimen feeds mostly on crustaceans (Ref. 58452). Exhibits seasonal onshore-offshore migration (Ref. 9988). Spawning takes place from June-July in the mid-Atlantic region; July-August in the Gulf of Maine and to the north of Georges Bank, and August-September on the Scotian Shelf (Ref. 58452). Marketed fresh, smoked and frozen; fresh fish are exported to European markets; eaten fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

丰富的在沙的地面上而且迷途进入较水浅的水域内。 一个狼吞虎咽的掠食者有同类相食的习惯。 超过 40 公分TL 的个体捕食鱼例如雪科与鲱鱼,然而较小的一些吃甲壳动物, 也就是磷虾与长额虾。 显示季节性的向陆及离陆的迁移。 在市场上销售生鲜、烟熏与冷冻; 新鲜的鱼被输出到欧洲的市场; 油炸后食用, 火烤了, 微波了而且烧烤了。 (参考文献 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawning appears to be strongly influenced by water temperature, and annual variations occur both in the peak and the range of the spawning period, which may influence considerably the growth of juveniles. 西北大西洋: 來自鈴島峽道到巴哈馬的加拿大與美國的海岸; 最常見的從紐芬蘭南部到南卡羅萊那州。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  临近濒危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 06 January 2015

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.9 - 7.8, mean 4.9 (based on 155 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00373 - 0.00848), b=3.11 (2.98 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.4 (2.7 - 4.3) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.18-0.4;tm=2-3; tmax=12).
Prior r = 0.37, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.56, Based on 2 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.