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Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchill, 1814)

Silver hake
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Merluccius bilinearis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Merluccius bilinearis (Silver hake)
Merluccius bilinearis
Picture by Flescher, D.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Mitchill.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas demersal; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 55 - 914 m (Ref. 58452).   Temperate; 55°N - 24°N, 80°W - 42°W (Ref. 54581)

Distribuição Países | Áreas FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Northwest Atlantic: coast of Canada and USA from Bell Isle Channel to the Bahamas; most common from southern Newfoundland to South Carolina.

Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 23.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 1371); common length : 37.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 1371); common length :65 cm TL (female); peso máx. Publicado: 2.3 kg (Ref. 1371); Idade máx. registada: 12 anos (Ref. 1371)

Descrição breve Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 1; Raios dorsais moles (total): 47-54; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais moles: 37 - 41. Head large, about 30% of SL . Pectoral fins long, reaching origin of anal fin. Overall color is silvery, somewhat brownish on back, whitish on belly.

Biologia     Glossário (ex. epibenthic)

Abundant on sandy grounds and strays into shallower waters. A voracious predator with cannibalistic habits. Individuals over 40 cm TL prey on fishes such as gadoids and herring, while smaller ones feed on crustaceans, i.e. euphausiids and pandalids; food also includes gaspereau, myctophids, smelt, silversides, mackerel, sand lance, butterfish, snakeblennies, longhorn sculpins and squids (Ref. 5951). The smallest specimen feeds mostly on crustaceans (Ref. 58452). Exhibits seasonal onshore-offshore migration (Ref. 9988). Spawning takes place from June-July in the mid-Atlantic region; July-August in the Gulf of Maine and to the north of Georges Bank, and August-September on the Scotian Shelf (Ref. 58452). Marketed fresh, smoked and frozen; fresh fish are exported to European markets; eaten fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Spawning appears to be strongly influenced by water temperature, and annual variations occur both in the peak and the range of the spawning period, which may influence considerably the growth of juveniles.

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Quase ameaçada (NT) ; Date assessed: 06 January 2015

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para o homem

  Harmless





Utilização humana

Pescarias: altamente comercial
FAO(pescarias: produção, perfil da espécie; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.9 - 7.8, mean 4.9 (based on 155 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00373 - 0.00848), b=3.11 (2.98 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.4 (2.7 - 4.3) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.18-0.4;tm=2-3; tmax=12).
Prior r = 0.37, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.56, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Low.