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Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchill, 1814)

Silver hake
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Merluccius bilinearis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Merluccius bilinearis (Silver hake)
Merluccius bilinearis
Picture by Flescher, D.

Classification / Names Κοινά ονόματα | Συνώνυμα | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ακτινοπτερύγιοι > Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Mitchill.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Οικολογία

; Θαλασσινό(ά) βενθικό(ς); ωκεανόδρομο(ς) (Ref. 51243); εύρος βάθους 55 - 914 m (Ref. 58452).   Temperate; 55°N - 24°N, 80°W - 42°W (Ref. 54581)

Κατανομή Χώρες | Περιοχές FAO | Οικοσυστήματα | Παρουσίες | Point map | Εισαγωγές | Faunafri

Northwest Atlantic: coast of Canada and USA from Bell Isle Channel to the Bahamas; most common from southern Newfoundland to South Carolina.

Length at first maturity / Μέγεθος / Βάρος / Age

Maturity: Lm 23.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 1371); common length : 37.0 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 1371); common length :65 cm TL (female); μεγ. δημοσιευμένο βάρος: 2.3 kg (Ref. 1371); μεγ. αναφερόμενη ηλικία: 12 έτη (Ref. 1371)

Short description Μορφολογία | Μορφομετρία

Ραχιαίες άκανθες (συνολικά): 1; Μαλακές ραχιαίες ακτίνες (συνολικά): 47-54; Εδρικές άκανθες 0; Μαλακές εδρικές ακτίνες: 37 - 41. Head large, about 30% of SL . Pectoral fins long, reaching origin of anal fin. Overall color is silvery, somewhat brownish on back, whitish on belly.

Βιολογία     Γλωσσάρι (π.χ. epibenthic)

Abundant on sandy grounds and strays into shallower waters. A voracious predator with cannibalistic habits. Individuals over 40 cm TL prey on fishes such as gadoids and herring, while smaller ones feed on crustaceans, i.e. euphausiids and pandalids; food also includes gaspereau, myctophids, smelt, silversides, mackerel, sand lance, butterfish, snakeblennies, longhorn sculpins and squids (Ref. 5951). The smallest specimen feeds mostly on crustaceans (Ref. 58452). Exhibits seasonal onshore-offshore migration (Ref. 9988). Spawning takes place from June-July in the mid-Atlantic region; July-August in the Gulf of Maine and to the north of Georges Bank, and August-September on the Scotian Shelf (Ref. 58452). Marketed fresh, smoked and frozen; fresh fish are exported to European markets; eaten fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Γεννητική Ωρίμανση | Αναπαραγωγή | Γεννοβολία | Αβγά | Γονιμότητα | Προνύμφες

Spawning appears to be strongly influenced by water temperature, and annual variations occur both in the peak and the range of the spawning period, which may influence considerably the growth of juveniles.

Main reference Upload your references | Αναφορές | Συντονιστής | Συνεργάτες

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Near Threatened (NT) ; Date assessed: 06 January 2015

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

αλιεία: πολύ εμπορικό

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Διαδικτυακές πηγές

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.9 - 7.8, mean 4.9 (based on 155 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00373 - 0.00848), b=3.11 (2.98 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Τροφικό Επίπεδο (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.4 (2.7 - 4.3) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Ελαστικότητα (Ref. 120179):  Μεσαίο(α), ελάχιστος χρόνος για διπλασιασμό πληθυσμού 1,4 - 4,4 έτη (K=0.18-0.4;tm=2-3; tmax=12).
Prior r = 0.37, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.56, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.