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Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchill, 1814)

Silver hake
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Image of Merluccius bilinearis (Silver hake)
Merluccius bilinearis
Picture by Flescher, D.

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Mitchill.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien demersaal; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 55 - 914 m (Ref. 58452).   Temperate; 55°N - 24°N, 80°W - 42°W (Ref. 54581)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Northwest Atlantic: coast of Canada and USA from Bell Isle Channel to the Bahamas; most common from southern Newfoundland to South Carolina.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 23.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 1371); common length : 37.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 1371); common length :65 cm TL (female); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 2.3 kg (Ref. 1371); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 12 jaren (Ref. 1371)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 1; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 47-54; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 37 - 41. Head large, about 30% of SL . Pectoral fins long, reaching origin of anal fin. Overall color is silvery, somewhat brownish on back, whitish on belly.

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Abundant on sandy grounds and strays into shallower waters. A voracious predator with cannibalistic habits. Individuals over 40 cm TL prey on fishes such as gadoids and herring, while smaller ones feed on crustaceans, i.e. euphausiids and pandalids; food also includes gaspereau, myctophids, smelt, silversides, mackerel, sand lance, butterfish, snakeblennies, longhorn sculpins and squids (Ref. 5951). The smallest specimen feeds mostly on crustaceans (Ref. 58452). Exhibits seasonal onshore-offshore migration (Ref. 9988). Spawning takes place from June-July in the mid-Atlantic region; July-August in the Gulf of Maine and to the north of Georges Bank, and August-September on the Scotian Shelf (Ref. 58452). Marketed fresh, smoked and frozen; fresh fish are exported to European markets; eaten fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Spawning appears to be strongly influenced by water temperature, and annual variations occur both in the peak and the range of the spawning period, which may influence considerably the growth of juveniles.

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Bijna bedreigd (NT) ; Date assessed: 06 January 2015

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





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FAO(Visserij: production, soortsprofiel; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.9 - 7.8, mean 4.9 (based on 155 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00372 - 0.00849), b=3.11 (2.98 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.18-0.4;tm=2-3; tmax=12).
Prior r = 0.37, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.56, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Low.