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Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchill, 1814)

Silver hake
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Image of Merluccius bilinearis (Silver hake)
Merluccius bilinearis
Picture by Flescher, D.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Gadiformes (Cods) 鱈形目 (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes) 無鬚鱈科 (Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Mitchill.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 居於水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 55 - 914 m (Ref. 58452).   溫帶; 55°N - 24°N, 80°W - 42°W (Ref. 54581)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Northwest Atlantic: coast of Canada and USA from Bell Isle Channel to the Bahamas; most common from southern Newfoundland to South Carolina.
西北大西洋: 來自鈴島峽道到巴哈馬的加拿大與美國的海岸; 最常見的從紐芬蘭南部到南卡羅萊那州。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 23.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length : 37.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length :65 cm TL (female); 最大體重: 2.3 kg (Ref. 1371); 最大年齡: 12 年 (Ref. 1371)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 1; 背的軟條 (總數): 47-54; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 37 - 41. Head large, about 30% of SL . Pectoral fins long, reaching origin of anal fin. Overall color is silvery, somewhat brownish on back, whitish on belly.
頭部大又大約 30% 的 SL 。 胸鰭長的, 達到臀鰭起點。 整體的色彩是銀色的, 略微褐色的背面, 微白色的在腹面上。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Abundant on sandy grounds and strays into shallower waters. A voracious predator with cannibalistic habits. Individuals over 40 cm TL prey on fishes such as gadoids and herring, while smaller ones feed on crustaceans, i.e. euphausiids and pandalids; food also includes gaspereau, myctophids, smelt, silversides, mackerel, sand lance, butterfish, snakeblennies, longhorn sculpins and squids (Ref. 5951). The smallest specimen feeds mostly on crustaceans (Ref. 58452). Exhibits seasonal onshore-offshore migration (Ref. 9988). Spawning takes place from June-July in the mid-Atlantic region; July-August in the Gulf of Maine and to the north of Georges Bank, and August-September on the Scotian Shelf (Ref. 58452). Marketed fresh, smoked and frozen; fresh fish are exported to European markets; eaten fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

豐富的在沙的地面上而且迷途進入較水淺的水域內。 一個狼吞虎嚥的掠食者有同類相食的習慣。 超過 40 公分TL 的個體捕食魚例如雪科與鯡魚,然而較小的一些吃甲殼動物, 也就是磷蝦與長額蝦; 食物也包括 gaspereau ,燈籠魚科魚類,胡瓜魚,銀漢魚,鯖,沙子鎗矛,溜滑的魚, snakeblennies ,長角牛杜父魚科的河魚與烏賊。 (參考文獻 5951) 顯示季節性的向陸及離陸的遷移。 在市場上銷售生鮮、煙燻與冷凍; 新鮮的魚被輸出到歐洲的市場; 油炸後食用, 火烤., 微波.而且燒烤.。 (參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawning appears to be strongly influenced by water temperature, and annual variations occur both in the peak and the range of the spawning period, which may influence considerably the growth of juveniles. 西北大西洋: 來自鈴島峽道到巴哈馬的加拿大與美國的海岸; 最常見的從紐芬蘭南部到南卡羅萊那州。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  近危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 06 January 2015

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





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漁業: 高經濟性
FAO(漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.9 - 7.8, mean 4.9 (based on 155 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00372 - 0.00849), b=3.11 (2.98 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.18-0.4;tm=2-3; tmax=12).
Prior r = 0.37, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.56, Based on 2 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.