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Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844)

Silver carp
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Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Picture by Naseka, A.M.

分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

条鰭類 > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Xenocyprinae
Etymology: Hypophthalmichthys: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, ophthalmos = eye + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  molitrix: molitrix, approximately grinder (referring to the pharyngeal grinding apparatus) (Ref. 10294).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898).   Subtropical; 6°C - 28°C (Ref. 37797); 63°N - 8°N, 73°E - 148°E (Ref. 120939)

分布 国々 | 国連食糧農業機関の区域 | エコシステム | 事件 | Point map | 導入 | Faunafri

Asia: Native to most major Pacific dainages of East Asia from Amur to Xi Jiang, China (Ref. 59043) and Hanoi, Vietman (Ref. 120939). Introduced around the world for aquaculture and control of algal blooms. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739). Often confused with Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Ref. 59043).

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 51.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 86798); common length : 18.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 35840); 最大公表体重: 50.0 kg (Ref. 30578)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 1 - 3; 背鰭 (合計): 6-7; 肛門の骨 1-3; 臀鰭: 10 - 14. Body olivaceous to silvery. Barbels absent. Keels extend from isthmus to anus. Edge of last simple dorsal ray not serrated. Branched anal rays 12-13.5 (Ref. 13274). Differs from Hypophthalmichthys nobilis by having sharp scaleless keel from pectoral region to anal origin, 650-820 long, slender gill rakers, head length 24-29% SL, and plain pale coloration, greenish grey above, whitish below (Ref. 59043).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Found in their natural range in rivers with marked water-level fluctuations and overwinters in middle and lower stretches, swimming just beneath the surface. They feed in shallow (0.5-1.0 m deep) and warm (over 21°C) backwaters, lakes and flooded areas with slow current on phytoplankton and zooplankton (Ref. 30578, 10294). Bigger individuals from about 1.5 cm SL feed only on phytoplankton while larvae and small juveniles prey on zooplankton (Ref. 59043). Adults breed in rivers or tributaries over shallow rapids with gravel or sand bottom, in upper water layer or even at surface during floods when the water level increases by 50-120 cm above normal level. Conditions for spawning include high current (0.5-1.7 m/s), turbid water, temperatures above 15°C (usually 18-26°C) and high oxygen concentrations (Ref. 59043). Spawning ceases if conditions change (especially sensitive to water-level fall) and resumes again when water level increases. Juveniles and adults form large schools during spawning season. Mature individuals undertake long distance upriver migration at start of a rapid flood and water-level increase, able to leap over obstacles up to 1 m. After spawning, adults migrate to foraging habitats, In autumn, adults move to deeper places in main course of river where they remain without feeding. Larvae drift downstream and settle in floodplain lakes, shallow shores and backwaters with little or no current (Ref. 59043). In aquaculture, it can survive brackish water (up to 7 ppt) when released into estuaries and coastal lakes (Ref. 59043). Escape from fish farms are widely known even as they are stocked in large rivers and almost all still water bodies like lakes and ponds. Utilized fresh for human consumption and also introduced to many countries where its ability to clean reservoirs and other waters of clogging algae is appreciated even more than its food value (Ref. 9987). One of among 3 or 4 species of cyprinids whose world production in aquaculture exceeds 1 million tons per year (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 120744)

  絶滅危惧に近い (NT) ; Date assessed: 20 January 2011

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Potential pest





Human uses

水産業: 商業; 水産養殖: 商業
FAO(水産養殖: 代謝, 種の外形; 水産業: 代謝, 種の外形; publication : search) | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

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インターネットの情報源

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00849 - 0.01292), b=3.06 (3.00 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.16-0.29; tm=2-6).
弱み (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (55 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.