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Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844)

Silver carp
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Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Picture by Naseka, A.M.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Xenocyprinae
Etymology: Hypophthalmichthys: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, ophthalmos = eye + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  molitrix: molitrix, approximately grinder (referring to the pharyngeal grinding apparatus) (Ref. 10294).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898).   溫帶; 6°C - 28°C (Ref. 37797); 63°N - 8°N, 73°E - 148°E (Ref. 120939)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Asia: Native to most major Pacific dainages of East Asia from Amur to Xi Jiang, China (Ref. 59043) and Hanoi, Vietman (Ref. 120939). Introduced around the world for aquaculture and control of algal blooms. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739). Often confused with Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Ref. 59043).
亞洲: 中國與東方西伯利亞。 對於水產業與海藻生長的控制在全世界引入。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 51.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 86798); common length : 18.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 35840); 最大體重: 50.0 kg (Ref. 30578)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 1 - 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 6-7; 臀棘 1-3; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 14. Body olivaceous to silvery. Barbels absent. Keels extend from isthmus to anus. Edge of last simple dorsal ray not serrated. Branched anal rays 12-13.5 (Ref. 13274). Differs from Hypophthalmichthys nobilis by having sharp scaleless keel from pectoral region to anal origin, 650-820 long, slender gill rakers, head length 24-29% SL, and plain pale coloration, greenish grey above, whitish below (Ref. 59043).
身體橄欖色的到銀色的。 觸鬚不存在。 龍骨脊從峽部到肛門延伸。 最後單一的背鰭鰭條的邊緣不鋸齒狀的。 分枝的臀鰭鰭條 12-13.5.(參考文獻 13274)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found in their natural range in rivers with marked water-level fluctuations and overwinters in middle and lower stretches, swimming just beneath the surface. They feed in shallow (0.5-1.0 m deep) and warm (over 21°C) backwaters, lakes and flooded areas with slow current on phytoplankton and zooplankton (Ref. 30578, 10294). Bigger individuals from about 1.5 cm SL feed only on phytoplankton while larvae and small juveniles prey on zooplankton (Ref. 59043). Adults breed in rivers or tributaries over shallow rapids with gravel or sand bottom, in upper water layer or even at surface during floods when the water level increases by 50-120 cm above normal level. Conditions for spawning include high current (0.5-1.7 m/s), turbid water, temperatures above 15°C (usually 18-26°C) and high oxygen concentrations (Ref. 59043). Spawning ceases if conditions change (especially sensitive to water-level fall) and resumes again when water level increases. Juveniles and adults form large schools during spawning season. Mature individuals undertake long distance upriver migration at start of a rapid flood and water-level increase, able to leap over obstacles up to 1 m. After spawning, adults migrate to foraging habitats, In autumn, adults move to deeper places in main course of river where they remain without feeding. Larvae drift downstream and settle in floodplain lakes, shallow shores and backwaters with little or no current (Ref. 59043). In aquaculture, it can survive brackish water (up to 7 ppt) when released into estuaries and coastal lakes (Ref. 59043). Escape from fish farms are widely known even as they are stocked in large rivers and almost all still water bodies like lakes and ponds. Utilized fresh for human consumption and also introduced to many countries where its ability to clean reservoirs and other waters of clogging algae is appreciated even more than its food value (Ref. 9987). One of among 3 or 4 species of cyprinids whose world production in aquaculture exceeds 1 million tons per year (Ref. 30578).

需要不動或緩慢流動的環境例如圈圍水域或大河的洄水區。 吃浮游植物與浮游動物。 (參考文獻 30578,10294) 在它的原來的分佈範圍中,它移動溯河到繁殖; 卵與幼體漂流物向下到洪泛區區域。 很好地為它在清澈的水中跳躍當被驚擾時的習慣知道的一個活躍的種.(參考文獻 7248) 在水面正下方游泳。 (參考文獻 5258) 生鮮使用供人類消費以及引進.許多國家在哪裡它的能力清理水庫與黏砂藻類的其他水域被欣賞甚至超過它的食用價值.(參考文獻 9987) 超過一百萬噸每年的它是鯉魚中產量較多的幾個魚種之一.(參考文獻 30578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

亞洲: 中國與東方西伯利亞。 對於水產業與海藻生長的控制在全世界引入。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  近危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 20 January 2011

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性
FAO(養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00849 - 0.01292), b=3.06 (3.00 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.16-0.29; tm=2-6).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (55 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.