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Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758)

Freshwater bream
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Image of Abramis brama (Freshwater bream)
Abramis brama
Picture by Hartl, A.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Abramis: Greek, abramis, -idos = a fish, grey mullet (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; Água doce; estuarina bentopelágico; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 15 - ?; potamódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 1 - ? m (Ref. 9696).   Temperate; 10°C - 24°C (Ref. 2059); 75°N - 40°N, 11°W - 73°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: most European drainages from Adour (France) to Pechora (White Sea basin); Aegean Sea basin, in Lake Volvi and Struma and Maritza drainages. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Scotland, Scandinavia north of Bergen (Norway) and 67°N (Finland). Locally introduced in Ireland, Spain and northeastern Italy. In Asia, from Marmara basin (Turkey) and eastward to Aral basin. Introduced in Lake Baikal and upper Ob and Yenisei drainages.

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 82.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 6114); common length : 25.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 3561); peso máx. publicado: 6.0 kg (Ref. 4699); idade máx. registrada: 23 anos (Ref. 796)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 3; Raios dorsais (total): 9-10; Espinhos anais 3; Raios anais : 23 - 30; Vértebras: 43 - 45. The only species of the genus which can be diagnosed from other species of Ballerus, Blicca and Vimba by the following characters: mouth sub-inferior, which can be extended as a tube; lateral line with 51-60 scales; anal fin with 30½ branched rays; eye diameter about 2/3 of snout length in individuals larger than 10 cm SL; pharyngeal teeth 5-5; and base of paired fins hyaline or grey (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Tall, laterally compressed body. Fins darker in adults. Anal fin base twice as long as the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit a wide variety of lakes and large to medium sized rivers. Most abundant in backwaters, lower parts of slow-flowing rivers, brackish estuaries and warm and shallow lakes (Ref. 59043). Adults occur usually in still and slow-running waters where they travel in large shoals (Ref. 9696). Larvae and juveniles live in still water bodies, feeding on plankton. One to two years old juveniles move from backwaters to river to feed. In the absence of opportunity to leave backwaters, juveniles may adapt but have a slower growth and attain maturity at a smaller size. They also drift to brackishwater estuaries to forage when water level of flooded areas drops in lower reaches of large rivers. Foraging juveniles in brackish waters stay in lower parts of rivers to overwinter in freshwater (Ref. 59043). Feed on insects, particularly chironomids, small crustaceans, mollusks and plants. Larger specimens may feed on small fish. Juveniles feed on zooplankton (Ref. 30578). Able to shift to particle feeding or even filter feeding at high zooplankton abundance. Usually spawn in backwaters, floodplains or lakes shores with dense vegetation (Ref. 59043). Can survive out of the water for extended periods (Ref. 9988). The flesh is bony, insipid and soft (Ref. 30578). Marketed fresh or frozen. Eaten steamed, broiled, fried and baked (Ref. 9988).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Undergo upriver migration (100 km in Dniepr) to spawn. Many populations start spawning migration in autumn ( especially semi-anadromours forms), slow down during winter and continue in spring. Males often defend spawning territories along shorelines. Eggs are sticky and eggs size increases with age of female. Frequently forms fertile hybrids with Rutilus rutilus (Ref. 59043).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)

  Segura ou pouco preocupante (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: altamente comercial; Aquacultura: espécies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim; isca: usually
FAO(Aquacultura: produção; pescarias: produção, perfil da espécie; publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00776 - 0.00978), b=3.14 (3.11 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 (7.3 - 11.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 52 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (K=0.06-0.17; tm=3-5; tmax=17; Fec=90,000-340,000).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.