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(Salmons) > Salmonidae
(Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut; air tawar; payau dasar (demersal); anadromus (ruaya dari laut ke air tawar) (Ref. 51243). Polar; 71°N - 44°N, 5°W - 133°W
Arctic Ocean basin, from Finland (lapland) to eastern Siberia, Alaska, and Canada eastward to Mackenzie drainage. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). Belongs to Coregonus clupeaformis complex (Ref. 27547).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 59043); common length : 32.8 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 12193); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 14 Tahun (Ref. 12193)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 11-13; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 10 - 14; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 58 - 63. Distinguished by the gill rakers that are longer than 20% of the interorbital width, 19 to 25 gill rakers (with modal counts of 22 or 23), and a pronounced hump behind the head in adults (Ref. 27547). Adipose fin well developed, often larger in males; axillary process present in pelvic fins (Ref. 27547). Dark brown to midnight blue above fading to silver on sides and wide beneath; no parr marks in young (Ref. 27547).
Inhabits coastal waters near shore (Ref. 5723), lower reaches of rivers with slow current, large lakes with tributaries, floodplain lakes, deltas and estuaries, brackish waters (Ref. 59043). Migrates up to more than 1,200 km inland for spawning (Ref. 5723). Overwinters near river mouths (Ref. 5723). There are non-migratory freshwater populations. Adults feed mostly on mollusks, crustaceans and chironomid larvae (Ref. 28219).
Upstream spawning migrations may be extensive but some populations seldom venture far upstream and still others may never go to sea at all (Ref. 593). Mature adults migrate upstream as early as June to spawn in October. It is assumed that the young hatch in late winter and spring, subsequently moving downstream, to return as mature adults 4 to 6 years later (Ref. 27547).
Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: komersial; Budidaya air: komersial
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanMass conversion
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00333 - 0.00907), b=3.24 (3.10 - 3.38), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (tm=3-14; tmax=14; Fec=8,000).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .