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Amblyraja radiata (Donovan, 1808)

Starry ray
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Amblyraja radiata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)
Amblyraja radiata
Picture by Ueberschär, B.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Amblyraja: Greek, amblys = darkness + Latin, raja, -ae = ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - 1540 m (Ref. 117245), usually 25 - 440 m (Ref. 114953).   溫帶; -1°C - 14°C (Ref. 49751); 72°N - 33°N, 78°W - 41°E (Ref. 55275)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic.
東大西洋: 冷岸,格陵蘭與冰島到英倫海峽, 包括北海 (除了南部以外) 與波羅的海西部; 也外海的南非開普敦.(參考文獻 5578) 西大西洋: 在加拿大到美國南卡羅萊那州的格陵蘭與哈得遜灣.(參考文獻 7251)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 87.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 105 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 53748); 最大体重: 11.4 kg (Ref. 53748); 最大年龄: 28 年 (Ref. 88929)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0. Adults are rhomboid in shape, young are rounder (Ref. 7251). Short, stiff, bluntly triangular snout; tail shorter than body (Ref. 5578). Upper surface very rough, with solid thornlets scattered all over disc and tail, underside smooth, except for some prickles on snout; a constant pattern of separate orbital thorns, a regular row of 13-17 large thorns from nape to first dorsal fin (Ref. 3167); large, close-set thorns with star-shaped bases at upper disc (Ref. 5578). Coloration highly variable; brownish grey with scattered irregular black blotches dorsally; white ventrally; with darker spots and blotches on tail and pelvic fins; black spot on tip of tail (Ref. 2708).
硬又钝三角形的吻而且尾部短于身体.(参考文献 5578) 体盘菱形的当成鱼时, 较圆的当幼鱼时.(参考文献 7251) 上表皮非常粗糙的, 有坚硬的棘分散的所有体盘之上与尾部, 下面平滑的, 在吻上除了一些刺; 一个个别眼窝的刺不变的样式, 固定的一列 13-17个大的从后颈到第一背鳍的刺;(参考文献 3167) 大的, 靠拢在一起刺在上体盘有星形的基底.(参考文献 5578) 灰褐色的有分散的不规则的黑色斑块背面; 腹侧白色的, 在尾部与腹鳍上有较深色的斑点与斑块; 在尾尖上的黑色的斑点.(参考文献 2708)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Eurybathic, eurythermic (Ref. 4426) and benthic (Ref. 58426). Cold temperate species found in offshore waters (Ref. 88171) on all kinds of bottoms (Ref. 3167), mainly sandy and muddy (Ref. 82311). In the northeast Atlantic most common between 50-100 m depth (Ref. 88187) at temperatures of 2-5 °C (Ref. 89120). Some seasonal migrations have been reported from the western Atlantic (Ref. 52109, 89121). Migration experiments showed that 85 % of tagged individuals remained within 93 km of the release site, with longest distance travelled at 180 km (Ref. 82319). Feed mainly on fish, crustaceans (Ref. 5951) and polychaete worms (Ref. 5578), but also on hydroids, molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms (Ref. 49751); known to be a scavenger (Ref. 89122). Diet changes with increasing body size (Ref. 82311). Different populations of starry rays mature at different ages and sizes (Ref. 88171). Oviparous (Ref. 3167). Maturity size varies from 44-90 cm TL. Young hatch at ca. 8-12 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Rarely reaches 60 cm in the North Sea (Ref. 88187). Able to detect weak electric fields generated by potential prey organisms and may also generate its own weak electric fields (Ref. 10311). Probably taken by hake trawlers (Ref. 5578). Few are dried and salted in Iceland (Ref. 6902). It has been mentioned that North American specimens grow to a larger size than East-Atlantic specimens (Arve Lynghammar, pers.comm., 11/09).

广深性而广温性的.(参考文献 4426) 栖息于各种的底部了。 (参考文献 3167) 捕食甲壳动物,硬骨鱼与多毛类的蠕虫。 (参考文献 5578) 可能被鳕鱼底拖网捕获。 (参考文献 5578) 卵生的.(参考文献 3167) 明显的成对出现。 幼鱼可能倾向跟随大的个体, 例如他们的母亲.(参考文献 205) 卵为长方形鞘囊具有僵硬的触角沈积在沙滩或泥滩的角落.(参考文献 205) 卵鞘长 3.4-8.9 公分长与 2.3-6.8 公分宽的.(参考文献 41250) 少数的被乾制而且在冰岛盐腌的。 (参考文献 6902)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Distinct pairing with embrace. Oviparous, laying 10-45 egg cases each year (Ref. 44869, 41305). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 3.4-8.9 cm long and 2.3-6.8 cm wide (Ref. 41250). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). In the North Sea, fully formed individuals hatch after 4 months and pups are about 8-11 cm in length (Ref. 44869, 37969). In the Barents Sea, low water temperature may lengthen embryonic development time to 2.5-3 years (Ref. 44869). 東大西洋: 冷岸,格陵蘭與冰島到英倫海峽, 包括北海 (除了南部以外) 與波羅的海西部; 也外海的南非開普敦.(參考文獻 5578) 西大西洋: 在加拿大到美國南卡羅萊那州的格陵蘭與哈得遜灣.(參考文獻 7251)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2b); Date assessed: 09 September 2004

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): -0.8 - 5, mean 1 (based on 340 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5010   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00429 - 0.00772), b=3.09 (3.00 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.17; tm=4; Fec=13-20).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.