You can sponsor this page

Amblyraja radiata (Donovan, 1808)

Starry ray
Beobachtung melden im Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Amblyraja radiata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Hochladen Photos und videos
Pictures | Google Bild
Image of Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)
Amblyraja radiata
Picture by Ueberschär, B.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (Haie und Rochen) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Amblyraja: Greek, amblys = darkness + Latin, raja, -ae = ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser; brackwasser demersal; ozeanodrom (Ref. 51243); tiefenbereich 5 - 1540 m (Ref. 117245), usually 25 - 440 m (Ref. 114953).   Boreal; -1°C - 14°C (Ref. 49751); 72°N - 33°N, 78°W - 41°E (Ref. 55275)

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm 87.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 105 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 53748); max. veröff. Gewicht: 11.4 kg (Ref. 53748); max. veröff. Alter: 28 Jahre (Ref. 88929)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Rückenflossenstacheln (insgesamt): 0; Afterflossenstacheln 0; Afterflossenweichstrahlen: 0. Adults are rhomboid in shape, young are rounder (Ref. 7251). Short, stiff, bluntly triangular snout; tail shorter than body (Ref. 5578). Upper surface very rough, with solid thornlets scattered all over disc and tail, underside smooth, except for some prickles on snout; a constant pattern of separate orbital thorns, a regular row of 13-17 large thorns from nape to first dorsal fin (Ref. 3167); large, close-set thorns with star-shaped bases at upper disc (Ref. 5578). Coloration highly variable; brownish grey with scattered irregular black blotches dorsally; white ventrally; with darker spots and blotches on tail and pelvic fins; black spot on tip of tail (Ref. 2708).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Eurybathic, eurythermic (Ref. 4426) and benthic (Ref. 58426). Cold temperate species found in offshore waters (Ref. 88171) on all kinds of bottoms (Ref. 3167), mainly sandy and muddy (Ref. 82311). In the northeast Atlantic most common between 50-100 m depth (Ref. 88187) at temperatures of 2-5 °C (Ref. 89120). Some seasonal migrations have been reported from the western Atlantic (Ref. 52109, 89121). Migration experiments showed that 85 % of tagged individuals remained within 93 km of the release site, with longest distance travelled at 180 km (Ref. 82319). Feed mainly on fish, crustaceans (Ref. 5951) and polychaete worms (Ref. 5578), but also on hydroids, molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms (Ref. 49751); known to be a scavenger (Ref. 89122). Diet changes with increasing body size (Ref. 82311). Different populations of starry rays mature at different ages and sizes (Ref. 88171). Oviparous (Ref. 3167). Maturity size varies from 44-90 cm TL. Young hatch at ca. 8-12 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Rarely reaches 60 cm in the North Sea (Ref. 88187). Able to detect weak electric fields generated by potential prey organisms and may also generate its own weak electric fields (Ref. 10311). Probably taken by hake trawlers (Ref. 5578). Few are dried and salted in Iceland (Ref. 6902). It has been mentioned that North American specimens grow to a larger size than East-Atlantic specimens (Arve Lynghammar, pers.comm., 11/09).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Distinct pairing with embrace. Oviparous, laying 10-45 egg cases each year (Ref. 44869, 41305). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 3.4-8.9 cm long and 2.3-6.8 cm wide (Ref. 41250). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). In the North Sea, fully formed individuals hatch after 4 months and pups are about 8-11 cm in length (Ref. 44869, 37969). In the Barents Sea, low water temperature may lengthen embryonic development time to 2.5-3 years (Ref. 44869).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : McEachran, John | Partner

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 120744)

  gefährdet, siehe IUCN Red List (VU) (A2b); Date assessed: 09 September 2004

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: weniger kommerziell; Sportfisch: ja
FAO(Fischereien: production; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource |

Mehr Information

Länder
FAO Gebiete
Ecosystems
Vorkommen
Einführungen
Stocks
Ökologie
Nahrung
Nahrungsorganismen
Nahrungsaufnahme
Nahrungsmenge
Namen
Synonyme
Metabolismus
Räuber
Ökotoxikologie
Fortpflanzung
Geschlechtsreife
Ablaichen
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eier
Eientwicklung
Alter/Größe
Wachstum
Länge-Gewicht
Länge-Länge
Längenhäufigkeiten
Morphometrie
Morphologie
Larven
Larven Pop.Dyn.
Rekrutierung
Dichte
Referenzen
Aquakultur
Aquakultur Profil
Zuchtlinien
Genetik
Allel-Häufigkeiten
Vererbbarkeit
Krankheiten
Verarbeitung
Mass conversion
Partner
Bilder
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Laute
Ciguatera
Geschwindigkeit
Schwimmstil
Kiemenoberfläche
Otoliths
Gehirngröße
Sehfähigkeit

Tools

Zusatzinformationen

Download XML

Internet Quellen

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): -0.8 - 5, mean 1 (based on 340 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5010   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00429 - 0.00772), b=3.09 (3.00 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert 4,5 - 14 Jahre. (K=0.17; tm=4; Fec=13-20).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Medium.