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Amblyraja radiata (Donovan, 1808)

Starry ray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Amblyraja radiata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)
Amblyraja radiata
Picture by Ueberschär, B.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) 鰩目 (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates) 鰩科 (Skates)
Etymology: Amblyraja: Greek, amblys = darkness + Latin, raja, -ae = ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - 1540 m (Ref. 117245), usually 25 - 440 m (Ref. 114953).   溫帶; -1°C - 14°C (Ref. 49751); 72°N - 33°N, 78°W - 41°E (Ref. 55275)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic.
東大西洋: 冷岸,格陵蘭與冰島到英倫海峽, 包括北海 (除了南部以外) 與波羅的海西部; 也外海的南非開普敦.(參考文獻 5578) 西大西洋: 在加拿大到美國南卡羅萊那州的格陵蘭與哈得遜灣.(參考文獻 7251)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 87.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 105 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 53748); 最大體重: 11.4 kg (Ref. 53748); 最大年齡: 28 年 (Ref. 88929)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. Adults are rhomboid in shape, young are rounder (Ref. 7251). Short, stiff, bluntly triangular snout; tail shorter than body (Ref. 5578). Upper surface very rough, with solid thornlets scattered all over disc and tail, underside smooth, except for some prickles on snout; a constant pattern of separate orbital thorns, a regular row of 13-17 large thorns from nape to first dorsal fin (Ref. 3167); large, close-set thorns with star-shaped bases at upper disc (Ref. 5578). Coloration highly variable; brownish grey with scattered irregular black blotches dorsally; white ventrally; with darker spots and blotches on tail and pelvic fins; black spot on tip of tail (Ref. 2708).
硬又鈍三角形的吻而且尾部短於身體.(參考文獻 5578) 體盤菱形的當成魚時, 較圓的當幼魚時.(參考文獻 7251) 上表皮非常粗糙的, 有堅硬的棘分散的所有體盤之上與尾部, 下面平滑的, 在吻上除了一些刺; 一個個別眼窩的刺不變的樣式, 固定的一列 13-17個大的從後頸到第一背鰭的刺;(參考文獻 3167) 大的, 靠攏在一起刺在上體盤有星形的基底.(參考文獻 5578) 灰褐色的有分散的不規則的黑色斑塊背面; 腹側白色的, 在尾部與腹鰭上有較深色的斑點與斑塊; 在尾尖上的黑色的斑點.(參考文獻 2708)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Eurybathic, eurythermic (Ref. 4426) and benthic (Ref. 58426). Cold temperate species found in offshore waters (Ref. 88171) on all kinds of bottoms (Ref. 3167), mainly sandy and muddy (Ref. 82311). In the northeast Atlantic most common between 50-100 m depth (Ref. 88187) at temperatures of 2-5 °C (Ref. 89120). Some seasonal migrations have been reported from the western Atlantic (Ref. 52109, 89121). Migration experiments showed that 85 % of tagged individuals remained within 93 km of the release site, with longest distance travelled at 180 km (Ref. 82319). Feed mainly on fish, crustaceans (Ref. 5951) and polychaete worms (Ref. 5578), but also on hydroids, molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms (Ref. 49751); known to be a scavenger (Ref. 89122). Diet changes with increasing body size (Ref. 82311). Different populations of starry rays mature at different ages and sizes (Ref. 88171). Oviparous (Ref. 3167). Maturity size varies from 44-90 cm TL. Young hatch at ca. 8-12 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Rarely reaches 60 cm in the North Sea (Ref. 88187). Able to detect weak electric fields generated by potential prey organisms and may also generate its own weak electric fields (Ref. 10311). Probably taken by hake trawlers (Ref. 5578). Few are dried and salted in Iceland (Ref. 6902). It has been mentioned that North American specimens grow to a larger size than East-Atlantic specimens (Arve Lynghammar, pers.comm., 11/09).

廣深性的﹐廣溫性的 (參考文獻 4426) 與底棲的.(參考文獻 58426) 棲息於各種的底部.。 (參考文獻 3167) 捕食甲殼動物,魚 (沙子鎗矛, 小的黑斑鱈與杜父魚科的河魚 (參考文獻 5951)) 與多毛類的蠕蟲。 (參考文獻 5578) 可能被鱈魚底拖網捕獲。 (參考文獻 5578) 卵生的.(參考文獻 3167) 明顯的成對出現。 幼魚可能傾向跟隨大的個體, 例如他們的母親.(參考文獻 205) 卵為長方形鞘囊具有僵硬的觸角沈積在沙灘或泥灘的角落.(參考文獻 205) 卵鞘長 3.4-8.9 公分長與 2.3-6.8 公分寬的.(參考文獻 41250) 少數的被乾製而且在冰島鹽醃的。 (參考文獻 6902)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Distinct pairing with embrace. Oviparous, laying 10-45 egg cases each year (Ref. 44869, 41305). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 3.4-8.9 cm long and 2.3-6.8 cm wide (Ref. 41250). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). In the North Sea, fully formed individuals hatch after 4 months and pups are about 8-11 cm in length (Ref. 44869, 37969). In the Barents Sea, low water temperature may lengthen embryonic development time to 2.5-3 years (Ref. 44869). 東大西洋: 冷岸,格陵蘭與冰島到英倫海峽, 包括北海 (除了南部以外) 與波羅的海西部; 也外海的南非開普敦.(參考文獻 5578) 西大西洋: 在加拿大到美國南卡羅萊那州的格陵蘭與哈得遜灣.(參考文獻 7251)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2b); Date assessed: 09 September 2004

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

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漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): -0.8 - 5, mean 1 (based on 340 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5010   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00429 - 0.00772), b=3.09 (3.00 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.17; tm=4; Fec=13-20).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.