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Cottus gobio Linnaeus, 1758

Bullhead
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Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Cottus gobio   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Cottus gobio (Bullhead)
Cottus gobio
Picture by Kohout, J.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Cottidae (Sculpins)
Etymology: Cottus: Greek, kottos = a fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - ?; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 2 - 2 m (Ref. 58018).   溫帶; 1°C - 16°C (Ref. 45166); 70°N - 40°N, 6°W - 60°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Europe: North Baltic in Scandinavia south to stream Maurine in southwesternmost of corner of Baltic basin (Germany); lower reaches of streams and rivers and along coast of Sweden, Finland, Russia southwest to Estonia.; Danube (except upper tributaries Save and Arges), Elbe, Ems, Weser and Rhône drainages;tributaries of upper Rhine downriver (northward) to about Mannheim; a few of uppermost tributaries of River Tevere, central Italy; Adriatic drainages from Potenza in Italy to Zrmanja in Croatia, except Timavo spring. Locally introduced in Scheldt drainage in Belgium. Records of sculpins from Neretva drainage in Bosnia-Herzegovina possibly belong to Cottus gobio.
歐洲: 半鹹淡水域沿著波斯尼亞灣,芬蘭與里加的海岸, 與在大河的河口; 歐洲的淡水.(除義大利,希臘,愛爾蘭, Jutland 與挪威北部,瑞典與芬蘭) 記錄來自 2個流域了, 往前與 Clyde, 在蘇格蘭 (P. Maitland , pers. comm.)。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 4.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 10.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大年龄: 10 年 (Ref. 74370)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 6 - 8; 背的软条 (总数): 15-18; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 10 - 13; 脊椎骨: 31 - 34. Caudal fin with 13 to 14 rays (Ref. 40476).
尾鳍有 13 到 14个鳍条。 (参考文献 40476)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in cold, clear and fast-flowing water of small stream to medium-sized rivers as well as on gravel or rocky shores of cold lakes and in slightly brackish waters along eastern coast of Baltic coast (Ref. 59043). Feeds on small bottom invertebrates, mainly insects, crustaceans. Pink to yellow eggs are found in clumps attached to undersides of large stones (Ref. 41678). Contrary to statements in older literature, eggs and larvae of fishes are not a common food item (Ref. 45167).

在溪流 , 河川与湖泊中栖息于坚硬的底部 (在石头下面), 极少在半咸淡的沿岸水域。 吃小的底栖无脊椎动物, 主要地昆虫,甲壳动物。 和陈述相反,在较旧的文献中,卵与鱼的仔鱼不是一个普遍脚项目。 (参考文献 45167) 粉红色到黄色的卵聚集成丛依附于大石头的下面。 (参考文献 41678) 在德国与奥地利的每年 2006 的鱼, 因为它的出现指出好水质。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawns once a year for several years in low productivity streams, but exhibits multiple spawning within a season in high productivity environments (Ref. 40290, 40754). Male protects several batches of eggs--deposited below a stone--for about 3 weeks. Larvae are not guarded and may occasionally been eaten (Ref. 45166). Also Ref. 26506.歐洲: 半鹹淡水域沿著波斯尼亞灣,芬蘭與里加的海岸, 與在大河的河口; 歐洲的淡水.(除義大利,希臘,愛爾蘭, Jutland 與挪威北部,瑞典與芬蘭) 記錄來自 2個流域了, 往前與 Clyde, 在蘇格蘭 (P. Maitland , pers. comm.)。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Freyhof, J., M. Kottelat and A. Nolte, 2005. Taxonomic diversity of European Cottus with description of eight new species (Teleostei: Cottidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 16(2):107-172. (Ref. 55856)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 没有兴趣; 诱饵: occasionally
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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参考文献
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养殖信息
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00579 - 0.01650), b=3.16 (3.01 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=1-3).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .