You can sponsor this page

Cottus gobio Linnaeus, 1758

Bullhead
把你的觀察加入 Fish Watcher
Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Cottus gobio   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
上傳你的 相片 和 影像
Pictures | Videos |     Google 影像
Image of Cottus gobio (Bullhead)
Cottus gobio
Picture by Kohout, J.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) 鮋形目 (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Cottidae (Sculpins) 杜父魚科 (Sculpins)
Etymology: Cottus: Greek, kottos = a fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - ?; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 2 - 2 m (Ref. 58018).   溫帶; 1°C - 16°C (Ref. 45166); 70°N - 40°N, 6°W - 60°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe: North Baltic in Scandinavia south to stream Maurine in southwesternmost of corner of Baltic basin (Germany); lower reaches of streams and rivers and along coast of Sweden, Finland, Russia southwest to Estonia.; Danube (except upper tributaries Save and Arges), Elbe, Ems, Weser and Rhône drainages;tributaries of upper Rhine downriver (northward) to about Mannheim; a few of uppermost tributaries of River Tevere, central Italy; Adriatic drainages from Potenza in Italy to Zrmanja in Croatia, except Timavo spring. Locally introduced in Scheldt drainage in Belgium. Records of sculpins from Neretva drainage in Bosnia-Herzegovina possibly belong to Cottus gobio.
歐洲: 半鹹淡水域沿著波斯尼亞灣,芬蘭與里加的海岸, 與在大河的河口; 歐洲 (包括義大利,希臘,愛爾蘭, 德國北部與挪威北部,瑞典與芬蘭的大陸丹麥)(參考文獻 55856) 的淡水. 記錄來自 2個流域了, 往前與 Clyde, 在蘇格蘭 (P. Maitland , pers. comm.)。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 4.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 10.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大年齡: 10 年 (Ref. 74370)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 6 - 8; 背的軟條 (總數): 15-18; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 13; 脊椎骨: 31 - 34. Caudal fin with 13 to 14 rays (Ref. 40476).
尾鰭有 13 到 14個鰭條。 (參考文獻 40476)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in cold, clear and fast-flowing water of small stream to medium-sized rivers as well as on gravel or rocky shores of cold lakes and in slightly brackish waters along eastern coast of Baltic coast (Ref. 59043). Feeds on small bottom invertebrates, mainly insects, crustaceans. Pink to yellow eggs are found in clumps attached to undersides of large stones (Ref. 41678). Contrary to statements in older literature, eggs and larvae of fishes are not a common food item (Ref. 45167).

在溪流 , 河川與湖泊中棲息於堅硬的底部 (在石頭下面), 極少在半鹹淡的沿岸水域。 吃小的底棲無脊椎動物, 主要地昆蟲,甲殼動物。 和陳述相反,在較舊的文獻中,卵與魚的仔魚不是一個普遍腳項目。 (參考文獻 45167) 粉紅色到黃色的卵聚集成叢依附於大石頭的下面。 (參考文獻 41678)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawns once a year for several years in low productivity streams, but exhibits multiple spawning within a season in high productivity environments (Ref. 40290, 40754). Male protects several batches of eggs--deposited below a stone--for about 3 weeks. Larvae are not guarded and may occasionally been eaten (Ref. 45166). Also Ref. 26506.歐洲: 半鹹淡水域沿著波斯尼亞灣,芬蘭與里加的海岸, 與在大河的河口; 歐洲 (包括義大利,希臘,愛爾蘭, 德國北部與挪威北部,瑞典與芬蘭的大陸丹麥)(參考文獻 55856) 的淡水. 記錄來自 2個流域了, 往前與 Clyde, 在蘇格蘭 (P. Maitland , pers. comm.)。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Freyhof, J., M. Kottelat and A. Nolte, 2005. Taxonomic diversity of European Cottus with description of eight new species (Teleostei: Cottidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 16(2):107-172. (Ref. 55856)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 沒有興趣; 誘餌: occasionally
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

更多資訊

參考文獻
養殖
養殖資訊
品種
遺傳學
基因序列
遺傳率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
聲音
神經毒
速度
泳型
鰓區
Otoliths
腦重體重比
眼睛色素

工具

特別的報告

下載 XML

網路資源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00579 - 0.01650), b=3.16 (3.01 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=1-3).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .