Oncorhynchus nerka, Sockeye salmon : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum, 1792)

Sockeye salmon
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Oncorhynchus nerka   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Oncorhynchus nerka (Sockeye salmon)
Oncorhynchus nerka
Female picture by Keeley, E.R.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335);  nerka: nerka which is the Russian name for the anadromous form (Ref. 1998).  More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 250 m (Ref. 50550).   温带; 0°C - 25°C (Ref. 35682); 72°N - 42°N, 130°E - 109°W (Ref. 117423)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

North Pacific: northern Japan to Bering Sea and to Los Angeles, California, USA (Ref. 2850). Artic and Pacific drainages from Point Hope in Alaska to Columbia River drainage in Oregon and Idaho in USA. Landlocked populations in Alaska, Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada, and Washington, Oregon, and California in USA (Ref. 86798).
北太平洋: 日本北方到白令海与对加州的洛杉矶,美国.(参考文献 2850) 在阿拉斯加州,育空河一带与加拿大的英属哥伦比亚的陆封族群, 与在美国的华盛顿与奥勒冈州。 进口在德国限制 (Anl。 3 BArtSchV).

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 60.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 84.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 86798); 71.0 cm (female); common length : 45.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9988); common length :58 cm (female); 最大体重: 7.7 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年龄: 8 年 (Ref. 72462)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 11-16; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 13 - 18; 脊椎骨: 56 - 67. Both the sockeye and the kokanee are distinguished by the long, fine, serrated, closely spaced gill rakers on the first arch that number between 30 and 40, and by its lack of definite spot on the back and tail (Ref. 27547). Body fusiform, streamlined, laterally compressed, body depth moderate, slightly deeper in breeding males (Ref. 6885). Head bluntly pointed, conical, eye rather small, position variable with sex and condition; snout rather pointed (Ref. 6885). Lateral line straight (Ref. 27547). Pelvic fins with axillary process; caudal emarginate (Ref. 27547). Pre-spawning fish are dark steel blue to greenish blue on the head and back, silvery on the sides and white to silvery on the belly; no definite spots on the back, although some individuals may have dark speckling and irregular marks on the dorsal fin (Ref. 27547). At spawning, the head of the males becomes bright to olive green, with black on the snout and upper jaw; the adipose and anal fins turn red and the paired fins and tail generally become grayish to green or dark; females are generally less brilliantly colored than males (Ref. 27547). Various populations may show less brilliant colors, and a few turn dull green to yellowish, with little if any red (Ref. 27547).
红鳟鱼与 kokanee 被藉着长的,细者区别,锯齿状的, 在第一个弓上间隔很密的鳃耙哪一数字在 30 与 40之间, 与用它的在背部与尾部上的缺乏明确的斑点.(参考文献 27547) 身体纺锭状的,流线型的,和侧扁的, 体高中等的, 略深的在繁殖期的雄性中.(参考文献 6885) 头部顿尖的,锥形, 眼相当小, 位置随着性别与环境变化; 吻相当尖.(参考文献 6885) 侧线直线.(参考文献 27547) 腹鳍有腋窝的羽翼突起; 尾部的边缘微凹的.(参考文献 27547) 预先产卵鱼是黑的铁蓝色到蓝绿色的在头部与背部上, 银色的侧边上与白色到银色的在腹面上; 没有在背部上的明确的斑点, 虽然一些个体在背鳍上可能有黑的斑点与不规则的标志.(参考文献 27547) 在产卵,头雄性变成明亮的到橄榄绿色的, 在吻部与上颌上有黑色的; 脂鳍与臀鳍变成红色,而且偶鳍与尾部通常变成浅灰色到绿色或黑; 雌性超过雄性是通常比较不颜色艳丽。 (参考文献 27547) 各种不同的族群可能显示比较不色彩艳丽颜色, 与一些旋转暗绿色到淡黄色的, 有小的如果任何的红色.(参考文献 27547)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Epipelagic (Ref. 58426). Occurs in open ocean and lakes and migrates up to coastal streams to spawn (Ref. 86798). There are two forms, the anadromous form known as the sockeye and the landlocked form (with a much smaller maximum size) known as the kokanee (Ref. 27547). Upon emergence from gravel, fry at first tends to avoid light, hiding during the day and emerging at night (Ref. 27547). In some populations, sockeye fry go to the sea during their first summer but most spend one or two (rarely three or four) years in a lake before migrating (Ref. 30333). In a few streams of the Copper River drainage in Alaska, young sockeye stay in the stream (Ref. 27547). Once in the lake, the young spend a few weeks inshore, feeding largely on ostracods, cladocerans and insect larvae. The fish then become pelagic and move offshore, where they feed on plankton in the upper 20 m or so (Ref. 27547). Seaward migration follows with the young individuals first staying fairly close to shore, feeding mainly on zooplankton, but also on small fishes and insects (Ref. 30343, 30346). With growth, they head out to sea and fish become important in the diet (Ref. 27547). Kokanee are confined to lake-stream systems, and most of its life is spent in the lake (Ref. 27547). They feed mainly on plankton, but also take insects and bottom organisms (Ref. 1998). Kokanee, wherever they are native, have been derived from anadromous populations, and each kokanee population apparently has evolved independently from a particular sockeye run (Ref. 30338, 30339). Offspring of kokanee occasionally become anadromous, and sockeye offspring occasionally remain in freshwater (Ref. 27547). Lifespan of the kokanee varies from two to seven years in different stocks (Ref. 27547). The sockeye is one of the most commercially important Pacific salmons; the kokanee is primarily a sport fish but also makes excellent food and in some areas well regarded as food for large trout (Ref. 27547). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked, canned, and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988).

有两个形式,即是已知的如 kokanee 的红鳟鱼与陆封的形式 (具有一个较小最大体长) 的溯河洄游产卵的形式。 (参考文献 27547) 在来自砾石的出现之上,鱼苗起先倾向避开光, 藏在白天期间而且出现在晚上.(参考文献 27547) 在一些族群,红鳟鱼鱼苗在他们的第一的夏天期间去到海洋,但是大部分在移动之前在一个湖中度过一或二 (很少地三或四) 数年。 (参考文献 30333) 在阿拉斯加州的铜河流域的一些溪流,幼鱼红鳟鱼停留在水流中。 (参考文献 27547) 一旦在湖,幼鱼度过一些星期沿海地区, 主要吃介形虫,水蚤与昆虫幼生。 鱼然后变成大洋性而且移动外海, 在哪里它们在上面的 20 公尺左右中吃浮游生物.(参考文献 27547) 临海的迁移追从而幼鱼个体第一个停留相当接近海岸,主要捕食浮游动物, 也捕食小鱼与昆虫.(参考文献 30343,30346) 随着成长, 他们头部向外到海洋与鱼在食性中变成很重要.(参考文献 27547) Kokanee 被局限于湖泊与河川流域,而且它生命期的大部份在湖被花费。 (参考文献 27547) 他们主要捕食浮游生物, 但也吃昆虫与底部生物.(参考文献 1998) Kokanee, 无论他们在何处原生的, 曾经从溯河洄游产卵的族群衍生了, 与每 kokanee 族群已经显然地独立地从一个特别的红鳟鱼小水流进化.(参考文献 30338,30339) kokanee 的子孙偶然地变成溯河洄游产卵,而且红鳟鱼子孙偶然地逗留在淡水。 (参考文献 27547) kokanee 的寿命在不同的品系中从二到七年改变。 (参考文献 27547) 红鳟鱼是最商业重要太平洋的鲑鱼之一; kokanee 主要地是一个垂钓用鱼也对于大的鳟鱼可以用作优良的食物与在一些地区视为良好的食物.(参考文献 27547) 在市场上销售新鲜的,乾燥或盐腌, 烟熏,, 装于罐头与冷冻; 清蒸,油炸,火烤, 微波了, 而且烧烤了.(参考文献 9988) 这种的阿拉斯加州鲑鱼渔场已经被检定藉由海洋的总管职务会议 (http:// www.msc.org/) 当管理良好且族群能维持。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Adult sockeyes return to natal streams to spawn. This occurs during summer and fall and as late as December in the southern part of the range. The female selects a site, usually with gravel bottom, and digs a nest. During nest building, the female is attended by a dominant male and a few subordinate males. At this stage, females tend to be aggressive toward other females and subordinate males; males are aggressive toward other males. Between digging acts, the female will rest over the pit while the dominant male courts her. Once the nest is completed, the female enters the nest, followed immediately by the dominant male who comes close beside her. Their mouths gape, and the pair vibrates to release eggs and sperm. One or more subordinate males may come to the other side of the female and join in the spawning. The female then moves to the upstream edge of the nest and digs again, covering the old nest, at the same time creating a new one just upstream from the previous one. A female normally needs 3 to 5 days to deposit all her eggs and utilizes 3 to 5 nests for this purpose. She may spawn with several dominant males. A male may breed with several females. All adult sockeye die after spawning (Ref. 27547). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).北太平洋: 日本北方到白令海与对加州的洛杉矶,美国.(参考文献 2850) 在阿拉斯加州,育空河一带与加拿大的英属哥伦比亚的陆封族群, 与在美国的华盛顿与奥勒冈州。 进口在德国限制 (Anl。 3 BArtSchV).

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 24 November 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO(养殖: 产生; 渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 1 - 8.4, mean 4.2 (based on 374 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.37-0.58; tm=2-4; tmax=7; Fec=300).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 6 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.