Oncorhynchus nerka, Sockeye salmon : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum, 1792)

Sockeye salmon
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Oncorhynchus nerka   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Oncorhynchus nerka (Sockeye salmon)
Oncorhynchus nerka
Female picture by Keeley, E.R.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) 鮭形目 (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) 鮭科 (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335);  nerka: nerka which is the Russian name for the anadromous form (Ref. 1998).  More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 250 m (Ref. 50550).   極; 0°C - 25°C (Ref. 35682); 72°N - 42°N, 130°E - 109°W (Ref. 117423)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

North Pacific: northern Japan to Bering Sea and to Los Angeles, California, USA (Ref. 2850). Artic and Pacific drainages from Point Hope in Alaska to Columbia River drainage in Oregon and Idaho in USA. Landlocked populations in Alaska, Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada, and Washington, Oregon, and California in USA (Ref. 86798).
北太平洋: 日本北方到白令海與對加州的洛杉磯,美國.(參考文獻 2850) 在阿拉斯加州,育空河一帶與加拿大的英屬哥倫比亞的陸封族群, 與在美國的華盛頓與奧勒岡州。 進口在德國限制 (Anl。 3 BArtSchV).

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 60.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 84.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 86798); 71.0 cm (female); common length : 45.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9988); common length :58 cm (female); 最大體重: 7.7 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年齡: 8 年 (Ref. 72462)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 11-16; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 13 - 18; 脊椎骨: 56 - 67. Both the sockeye and the kokanee are distinguished by the long, fine, serrated, closely spaced gill rakers on the first arch that number between 30 and 40, and by its lack of definite spot on the back and tail (Ref. 27547). Body fusiform, streamlined, laterally compressed, body depth moderate, slightly deeper in breeding males (Ref. 6885). Head bluntly pointed, conical, eye rather small, position variable with sex and condition; snout rather pointed (Ref. 6885). Lateral line straight (Ref. 27547). Pelvic fins with axillary process; caudal emarginate (Ref. 27547). Pre-spawning fish are dark steel blue to greenish blue on the head and back, silvery on the sides and white to silvery on the belly; no definite spots on the back, although some individuals may have dark speckling and irregular marks on the dorsal fin (Ref. 27547). At spawning, the head of the males becomes bright to olive green, with black on the snout and upper jaw; the adipose and anal fins turn red and the paired fins and tail generally become grayish to green or dark; females are generally less brilliantly colored than males (Ref. 27547). Various populations may show less brilliant colors, and a few turn dull green to yellowish, with little if any red (Ref. 27547).
紅鱒魚與 kokanee 被藉著長的﹐細者區別,鋸齒狀的, 在第一個弓上間隔很密的鰓耙哪一數字在 30 與 40之間, 與用它的在背部與尾部上的缺乏明確的斑點.(參考文獻 27547) 身體紡錠狀的﹐流線型的﹐和側扁的, 體高中等的, 略深的在繁殖期的雄性中.(參考文獻 6885) 頭部頓尖的﹐錐形, 眼相當小, 位置隨著性別與環境變化; 吻相當尖.(參考文獻 6885) 側線直線.(參考文獻 27547) 腹鰭有腋窩的羽翼突起; 尾部的邊緣微凹的.(參考文獻 27547) 預先產卵魚是黑的鐵藍色到藍綠色的在頭部與背部上, 銀色的側邊上與白色到銀色的在腹面上; 沒有在背部上的明確的斑點, 雖然一些個體在背鰭上可能有黑的斑點與不規則的標誌.(參考文獻 27547) 在產卵﹐頭雄性變成明亮的到橄欖綠色的, 在吻部與上頜上有黑色的; 脂鰭與臀鰭變成紅色,而且偶鰭與尾部通常變成淺灰色到綠色或黑; 雌性超過雄性是通常比較不顏色豔麗。 (參考文獻 27547) 各種不同的族群可能顯示比較不色彩豔麗顏色, 與一些旋轉暗綠色到淡黃色的, 有小的如果任何的紅色.(參考文獻 27547)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Epipelagic (Ref. 58426). Occurs in open ocean and lakes and migrates up to coastal streams to spawn (Ref. 86798). There are two forms, the anadromous form known as the sockeye and the landlocked form (with a much smaller maximum size) known as the kokanee (Ref. 27547). Upon emergence from gravel, fry at first tends to avoid light, hiding during the day and emerging at night (Ref. 27547). In some populations, sockeye fry go to the sea during their first summer but most spend one or two (rarely three or four) years in a lake before migrating (Ref. 30333). In a few streams of the Copper River drainage in Alaska, young sockeye stay in the stream (Ref. 27547). Once in the lake, the young spend a few weeks inshore, feeding largely on ostracods, cladocerans and insect larvae. The fish then become pelagic and move offshore, where they feed on plankton in the upper 20 m or so (Ref. 27547). Seaward migration follows with the young individuals first staying fairly close to shore, feeding mainly on zooplankton, but also on small fishes and insects (Ref. 30343, 30346). With growth, they head out to sea and fish become important in the diet (Ref. 27547). Kokanee are confined to lake-stream systems, and most of its life is spent in the lake (Ref. 27547). They feed mainly on plankton, but also take insects and bottom organisms (Ref. 1998). Kokanee, wherever they are native, have been derived from anadromous populations, and each kokanee population apparently has evolved independently from a particular sockeye run (Ref. 30338, 30339). Offspring of kokanee occasionally become anadromous, and sockeye offspring occasionally remain in freshwater (Ref. 27547). Lifespan of the kokanee varies from two to seven years in different stocks (Ref. 27547). The sockeye is one of the most commercially important Pacific salmons; the kokanee is primarily a sport fish but also makes excellent food and in some areas well regarded as food for large trout (Ref. 27547). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked, canned, and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988).

表層帶.(參考文獻 58426) 有兩個形式,即是已知的如 kokanee 的紅鱒魚與陸封的形式 (具有一個較小最大體長) 的溯河洄游產卵的形式。 (參考文獻 27547) 在來自礫石的出現之上,魚苗起先傾向避開光, 藏在白天期間而且出現在晚上.(參考文獻 27547) 在一些族群,紅鱒魚魚苗在他們的第一的夏天期間去到海洋,但是大部分在移動之前在一個湖中度過一或二 (很少地三或四) 數年。 (參考文獻 30333) 在阿拉斯加州的銅河流域的一些溪流,幼魚紅鱒魚停留在水流中。 (參考文獻 27547) 一旦在湖,幼魚度過一些星期沿海地區, 主要吃介形蟲,水蚤與昆蟲幼生。 魚然後變成大洋性而且移動外海, 在那裡它們在上面的 20 公尺左右中吃浮游生物.(參考文獻 27547) 臨海的遷移追從而幼魚個體第一個停留相當接近海岸,主要捕食浮游動物, 也捕食小魚與昆蟲.(參考文獻 30343,30346) 隨著成長, 他們頭部向外到海洋與魚在食性中變成很重要.(參考文獻 27547) Kokanee 被侷限於湖泊與河川流域,而且它生命期的大部份在湖被花費。 (參考文獻 27547) 他們主要捕食浮游生物, 但也吃昆蟲與底部生物.(參考文獻 1998) Kokanee, 無論他們在何處原生的, 曾經從溯河洄游產卵的族群衍生., 與每 kokanee 族群已經顯然地獨立地從特別的紅鱒魚小水流進化.(參考文獻 30338,30339) kokanee 的子孫偶然地變成溯河洄游產卵,而且紅鱒魚子孫偶然地逗留在淡水。 (參考文獻 27547) kokanee 的壽命在不同的品系中從二到七年改變。 (參考文獻 27547) 紅鱒魚是最商業重要太平洋的鮭魚之一; kokanee 主要地是一個垂釣用魚也對於大的鱒魚可以用作優良的食物與在一些地區視為良好的食物.(參考文獻 27547) 在市場上銷售新鮮的﹐乾燥或鹽醃, 煙燻,, 裝於罐頭與冷凍; 清蒸,油炸,火烤, 微波., 而且燒烤..(參考文獻 9988) 這種的阿拉斯加州鮭魚漁場已經被檢定藉由海洋的總管職務會議 (http://www.msc.org/) 當管理良好且族群能維持。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Adult sockeyes return to natal streams to spawn. This occurs during summer and fall and as late as December in the southern part of the range. The female selects a site, usually with gravel bottom, and digs a nest. During nest building, the female is attended by a dominant male and a few subordinate males. At this stage, females tend to be aggressive toward other females and subordinate males; males are aggressive toward other males. Between digging acts, the female will rest over the pit while the dominant male courts her. Once the nest is completed, the female enters the nest, followed immediately by the dominant male who comes close beside her. Their mouths gape, and the pair vibrates to release eggs and sperm. One or more subordinate males may come to the other side of the female and join in the spawning. The female then moves to the upstream edge of the nest and digs again, covering the old nest, at the same time creating a new one just upstream from the previous one. A female normally needs 3 to 5 days to deposit all her eggs and utilizes 3 to 5 nests for this purpose. She may spawn with several dominant males. A male may breed with several females. All adult sockeye die after spawning (Ref. 27547). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).北太平洋: 日本北方到白令海與對加州的洛杉磯,美國.(參考文獻 2850) 在阿拉斯加州,育空河一帶與加拿大的英屬哥倫比亞的陸封族群, 與在美國的華盛頓與奧勒岡州。 進口在德國限制 (Anl。 3 BArtSchV).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 24 November 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 1 - 8.4, mean 4.2 (based on 374 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.37-0.58; tm=2-4; tmax=7; Fec=300).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 6 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.