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Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887)

Striped marlin
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Kajikia audax   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Kajikia audax (Striped marlin)
Kajikia audax
Picture by Archambault, C.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Istiophoridae (Billfishes)
  More on author: Philippi.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 200 m (Ref. 43).   Subtropical; 20°C - 25°C (Ref. 54918); 46°N - 49°S, 19°E - 69°W (Ref. 54918)

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: tropical, subtropical and temperate waters. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139). The distribution in the Pacific Ocean is unique among billfishes and tunas in that it forms a horseshoe-shaped pattern from the northwest Pacific through the eastern Pacific to the southwest Pacific (Ref. 30443). In the Indian Ocean, fish are more densely distributed in equatorial regions with higher concentrations off eastern Africa, in the western Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal and off northwestern Australia (Ref. 30444).

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 210.0, range 190 - ? cm
Max length : 420 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 30874); common length : 290 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 9308); peso máx. publicado: 440.0 kg (Ref. 30874)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais (total): 42-48; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais : 18 - 24. Body elongated and compressed; upper jaw produced into a robust and medium sized beak; two dorsal fins, the height of the first greater than the greatest depth, short anteriorly, taller in the middle, then becoming shorter posteriorly; pectoral fins falcate and flexible, with 18 to 22 rays; body densely covered by small, embedded scales with 1 or 2 bluntish points; back dark blue; belly silvery; membrane of first dorsal fin blue black without dark spots; flanks with about 20 bluish stripes (Ref. 55763). Blue-black above and silvery white below, with about 15 rows of cobalt-colored stripes; 1st dorsal fin dark blue; other fins dark brown, sometimes with a tinge of dark blue; anal fin bases with a tinge of silvery white.

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Epipelagic and oceanic species, usually found above the thermocline. Generally inhabit cooler water than either black (Makaira indica) or blue marlin (M. mazara) (Ref. 43). Most dominant and widely distributed of all billfishes. Their abundance increases with distance from the continental shelf (Ref. 6390). Usually seen close to shore only where deep drop-offs occur (Ref. 6390). Mostly solitary, but form small schools by size during the spawning season (Ref. 9987). They are usually dispersed at considerably wide distances. Feed on fishes, crustaceans and squids. Also caught with the harpoon. The flesh is the best among billfishes for sashimi and sushi. Marketed mostly frozen, sometimes fresh (Ref. 43); also smoked and frozen (Ref. 9987). Also Ref. 9137, 9574.

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Females are indeterminate batch spawners with asynchronous oocyte development (Ref. 92477). Larvae are most abundant in the respective local early summers. The seasonal occurrence of mature females coincides with that of the larvae. The lower temperature limit in the distribution of larvae is approximately 24°C, both in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Spawning sites are between 10°S and 30°S in Southwest Pacific and 10°S and 20°S in northeastern Indian Ocean (Ref. 6390).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Nakamura, I., 1985. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 5. Billfishes of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of marlins, sailfishes, spearfishes and swordfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(5):65p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 43)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)

  Quase ameaçada (NT) ; Date assessed: 16 February 2011

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: espécies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim
FAO(pescarias: produção, perfil da espécie; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.6 - 28.3, mean 25.9 (based on 1534 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7505   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00307 - 0.01030), b=3.15 (2.98 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.77 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 2.5 (1.5 - 5.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 13 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (rm=0.09; K=0.2-0.6; tm=2-3; Fec=90-281 million (annual reproductive output)).
Prior r = 0.22, 95% CL = 0.12 - 0.40, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Very high.