Raja clavata, Thornback ray : fisheries, gamefish

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Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758

Thornback ray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Raja clavata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Raja clavata (Thornback ray)
Raja clavata
Picture by Stergiou, K.I.

分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

板鰓亜鋼(サメとエイ類) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates) > Rajinae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海 底生の; 深さの範囲 5 - 1020 m (Ref. 114953).   Subtropical; 70°N - 29°S, 25°W - 42°E

分布 国々 | 国連食糧農業機関の区域 | エコシステム | 事件 | Point map | 導入 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ocean: Iceland to Madagascar, including the Mediterranean Sea.

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 76.6, range 47 - 87.5 cm
Max length : 105 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 53748); 139.0 cm TL (female); common length : 85.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 9987); 最大公表体重: 18.0 kg (Ref. 35388); 最大記録サイズ: 15 年 (Ref. 41305)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 0. Sub-rhomboid in shape with pointed wing-tips; disc-width 1,25 to 1,36 times in its length, its length 1,70 to 1,83 times in total length. Short rostrum, rounded at his extremity; pectoral fins with clear angles on lateral side; triangular pelvic fins (Ref. 39246). Dorsally prickly; large females also prickly throughout their ventral surface; juveniles and large males prickly along the margins of their discs and the underside of their snout. 30-50 thorns form a median row from the nape to the first dorsal fin; additional large 'buckler' thorns with swollen bases scattered on upper surface of disc in adults (Ref. 3167). Coloration is highly variable, with the dorsal surface having all shades of brown with dark and light spots and blotches; ventral surface white (Ref. 3167, 58137).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Inhabits shelf and upper slope waters. Reported depth ranges varies, from 10-300 m (Ref. 4426, 82319, 88187), and from 300-577 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504); most common in coastal waters between 10-60 m depth (Ref. 58137). Tolerates low salinities (Ref. 88171). Found on mud, sand and gravel bottoms, rarely on rougher bottoms (Ref. 6808, 58137). Nocturnal species. Feeds on all kinds of bottom animals, preferably crustaceans (Ref. 3167) and fishes (Ref. 114953). Undertakes migrations with mean distances of 54-117 km per month; shows a clear annual migration cycle (Ref. 89017, 89018), moves from deeper offshore waters (10-30 m) in autumn and winter to shallower areas (<10 m) in spring (Ref. 82319). Young are non-migratory, inhabiting inshore nursery grounds (Ref. 89019, 89020, 89022); in the Bay of Douarnenez (France) they are found to remain in shallow waters for at least 2 years (Ref. 89023). Maturity age 7-8 years (Ref. 114953). Oviparous. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Detects weak electric fields generated by other organisms (prey detection and predator avoidance) but may also generate its own weak electric fields (Ref. 10311, 88171). Utilized fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Polyandrous species (Ref. 89024). Paired eggs are laid and deposited on shallow sand, mud, pebble or gravel bottoms (Ref. 205, 89025). Up to 170 egg cases can be laid by a single female in a year (Ref. 3167), but average fecundity is much lower (around 48-74 eggs) (Ref. 3603, 31302). In northwestern Europe, egg cases are laid during spring (Ref. 3167) and in the Mediterranean during winter and spring (Ref. 3167). Egg cases are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners, each containing one embryo (Ref. 205). Capsules are 5.0-9.0 cm long without the horns (Ref. 41250, 88187) and 3.4-6.8 cm wide (Ref. 41250). Egg cases are anchored with an adhesive film (Ref. 82399). Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Egg cases hatch after about 4-5 months and pups are about 11-13 cm TL (Ref. 88864). Mating season from February to September, peaking in June (Ref. 74501). Adults observed to form same-sex aggregations during the mating season with females moving to shallower inshore waters approximately a month before the males (Ref 3603, 58137, 74501). Mating does not occur in the Baltic Sea (Ref. 82311).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター : McEachran, John | 協力者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 120744)

  絶滅危惧に近い (NT) ; Date assessed: 03 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Harmless





Human uses

水産業: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
FAO(水産業: 代謝; publication : search) | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

より多くの情報

共通名の
類義語
代謝
捕食動物
生態毒性
繁殖
成熟
放精
卵の集合体
生産力

卵の開発
参考文献
水産養殖
水産養殖の紹介
緊張
遺伝子の
対立遺伝子頻度
遺伝
病気
行列
Mass conversion
協力者
画像
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シガテラ(食中毒の名前)
速度
泳ぐ 型式
カマ
Otoliths

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インターネットの情報源

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 15.8, mean 10.7 (based on 474 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00202 - 0.00285), b=3.24 (3.20 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 10.0 (6.1 - 11.8) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低い, 4.5年~14年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.09-0.14; tm=10; tmax=23; Fec=150).
Prior r = 0.18, 95% CL = 0.07 - 0.45, Based on 4 stock assessments.
弱み (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.