Lethrinus lentjan, Pink ear emperor : fisheries

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Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède, 1802)

Pink ear emperor
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Lethrinus lentjan   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Lethrinus lentjan
Picture by Ryanskiy, A.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.  More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 礁区鱼类; 非迁移的; 深度上下限 10 - 90 m (Ref. 6390).   熱帶; 32°N - 35°S, 24°E - 167°W

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: widespread, from the Red Sea, Arabian (Persian) Gulf, and East Africa to the Ryukyus and Tonga.
印度-西太平洋: 廣泛分佈, 從紅海,波斯灣, 而且東非到沖繩與東加。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 27.7, range 18 - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1020); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5450); 最大年龄: 19 年 (Ref. 42001)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 10; 背的软条 (总数): 9; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body moderately deep, its depth 2.5-2.8 times in standard length; head length 0.9-1 times in body depth, 2.6-3 times in SL, dorsal profile near eye nearly straight; snout moderately short, its length about 1.9-2.4 times in HL, measured without the lip the snout is 0.8-1 times in cheek height, its dorsal profile nearly straight, snout angle relative to upper jaw between 60° and 70°; interorbital space convex; posterior nostril an oblong longitudinal opening, closer to orbit than anterior nostril; eye situated close to or far removed from dorsal profile, its length 3.3-4.8 times in HL; cheek not high, its height 2.4-3.1 times in HL; lateral teeth in jaws rounded often with conical tips, or molars often with tubercles; outer surface of maxilla with a longitudinal ridge; D X,9 with the 4th dorsal-fin spine usually the longest, its length 2.4-3.4 times in body depth; A III,8 soft rays, the first soft ray usually the longest, its length almost equal to or shorter than length of base of soft-rayed portion of anal fin and 1-1.2 times in length of entire anal-fin base; pectoral-fin rays 13; pelvic-fin membranes between rays closest to body without dense melanophores; cheek without scales; 46-47 lateral-line scales usually; 5 ½ scale rows between lateral line and base of middle dorsal-fin spines; 15- 16 scale rows in transverse series between origin of anal fin and lateral line; usually 15 rows in lower series of scales around caudal peduncle; 4-9 scales in supratemporal patch; inner surface of pectoral-fin base densely covered with scales, with a few scales, or naked; posterior angle of operculum fully scaly. Colour of body greenish or grey, shading to white below, centers of scales on upper sides often white; posterior margin of opercle and sometimes base of pectoral fins red; pectoral fins white, yellow, or pinkish; pelvic and anal fins white to orange; dorsal fin white and orange mottled with a reddish margin; caudal fin mottled orange or reddish (Ref. 114226).
嘴些微可伸出; 唇厚而肉质的。 胸鳍的内部基底是或有些鳞片或裸露的。 身体橄榄绿色的上方, 变成腹面灰白; 每个鳞片背面有时具有白色的中心。 鳃盖的后面边缘与有时胸鳍的基底是红色的。 胸鳍是白色的,黄色的或略带桃色的; 腹鳍与臀鳍是白色到橘色的; 背鳍是白色而橘色的具有淡红的边缘色斑; 尾鳍是有斑点的橘色或淡红的。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits sandy bottoms in coastal areas, deep lagoons and near coral reefs (Ref. 30573). Juveniles and small adults commonly in loose aggregations over seagrass beds, mangrove swamps and shallow sandy areas while adults are generally solitary in deeper waters. Feeds primarily on crustaceans and mollusks but echinoderms, polychaetes and fishes are also consumed in considerable quantities (Ref. 2295). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Caught primarily by handline, traps, trawls, beach seines, and gill nets. Marketed mostly fresh (Ref. 68703).

在沿岸区域, 深的舄湖与近的珊瑚礁中栖息于砂质底部。 (参考文献 30573) 稚鱼与小的成鱼通常形成松散的鱼群海草床,红树林沼泽与水浅的沙地区域之上虽然成鱼通常独居在较深的水域。 主要吃甲壳动物与软件动物,但是棘皮动物, 多毛类动物与鱼也在相当多的量被消费。 (参考文献 2295) 一个雌性先熟的雌雄同体.(参考文献 55367)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Length at sex change = 30.8 cm TL (Ref. 55367). Also Ref. 103751.印度-西太平洋: 廣泛分佈, 從紅海,波斯灣, 而且東非到沖繩與東加。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 March 2015

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




渔业: 高经济性
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋



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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.6 - 29, mean 28 (based on 1436 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.01251 - 0.01832), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.17-0.27; tm=2-3.8; tmax=15).
Prior r = 0.73, 95% CL = 0.48 - 1.10, Based on 3 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.