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Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède, 1802)

Pink ear emperor
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Native range | Year 2100
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Lethrinus lentjan   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Lethrinus lentjan
Picture by Ryanskiy, A.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) 裸頰鯛科 (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.  More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 礁區魚類; 非遷移的; 深度上下限 10 - 90 m (Ref. 6390).   熱帶; 32°N - 35°S, 24°E - 167°W

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: widespread, from the Red Sea, Arabian (Persian) Gulf, and East Africa to the Ryukyus and Tonga.
印度-西太平洋: 廣泛分佈, 從紅海,波斯灣, 而且東非到沖繩與東加。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 27.7, range 18 - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1020); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5450); 最大年齡: 19 年 (Ref. 42001)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 10; 背的軟條 (總數): 9; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body moderately deep, its depth 2.5-2.8 times in standard length; head length 0.9-1 times in body depth, 2.6-3 times in SL, dorsal profile near eye nearly straight; snout moderately short, its length about 1.9-2.4 times in HL, measured without the lip the snout is 0.8-1 times in cheek height, its dorsal profile nearly straight, snout angle relative to upper jaw between 60° and 70°; interorbital space convex; posterior nostril an oblong longitudinal opening, closer to orbit than anterior nostril; eye situated close to or far removed from dorsal profile, its length 3.3-4.8 times in HL; cheek not high, its height 2.4-3.1 times in HL; lateral teeth in jaws rounded often with conical tips, or molars often with tubercles; outer surface of maxilla with a longitudinal ridge; D X,9 with the 4th dorsal-fin spine usually the longest, its length 2.4-3.4 times in body depth; A III,8 soft rays, the first soft ray usually the longest, its length almost equal to or shorter than length of base of soft-rayed portion of anal fin and 1-1.2 times in length of entire anal-fin base; pectoral-fin rays 13; pelvic-fin membranes between rays closest to body without dense melanophores; cheek without scales; 46-47 lateral-line scales usually; 5 ½ scale rows between lateral line and base of middle dorsal-fin spines; 15- 16 scale rows in transverse series between origin of anal fin and lateral line; usually 15 rows in lower series of scales around caudal peduncle; 4-9 scales in supratemporal patch; inner surface of pectoral-fin base densely covered with scales, with a few scales, or naked; posterior angle of operculum fully scaly. Colour of body greenish or grey, shading to white below, centers of scales on upper sides often white; posterior margin of opercle and sometimes base of pectoral fins red; pectoral fins white, yellow, or pinkish; pelvic and anal fins white to orange; dorsal fin white and orange mottled with a reddish margin; caudal fin mottled orange or reddish (Ref. 114226).
嘴些微可伸出; 唇厚而肉質的。 胸鰭的內部基底是或有些鱗片或裸露的。 身體橄欖綠色的上方, 變成腹面灰白; 每個鱗片背面有時具有白色的中心。 鰓蓋的後面邊緣與有時胸鰭的基底是紅色的。 胸鰭是白色的﹐黃色的或略帶桃色的; 腹鰭與臀鰭是白色到橘色的; 背鰭是白色而橘色的具有淡紅的邊緣色斑; 尾鰭是有斑點的橘色或淡紅的。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits sandy bottoms in coastal areas, deep lagoons and near coral reefs (Ref. 30573). Juveniles and small adults commonly in loose aggregations over seagrass beds, mangrove swamps and shallow sandy areas while adults are generally solitary in deeper waters. Feeds primarily on crustaceans and mollusks but echinoderms, polychaetes and fishes are also consumed in considerable quantities (Ref. 2295). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Caught primarily by handline, traps, trawls, beach seines, and gill nets. Marketed mostly fresh (Ref. 68703).

在沿岸區域, 深的潟湖與近的珊瑚礁中棲息於砂質底部。 (參考文獻 30573) 稚魚與小的成魚通常形成鬆散的魚群海草床,紅樹林沼澤與水淺的沙地區域之上雖然成魚通常獨居在較深的水域。 主要吃甲殼動物與軟體動物,但是棘皮動物, 多毛類動物與魚也在相當多的量被消費。 (參考文獻 2295) 一個雌性先熟的雌雄同體.(參考文獻 55367)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Length at sex change = 30.8 cm TL (Ref. 55367). Also Ref. 103751.印度-西太平洋: 廣泛分佈, 從紅海,波斯灣, 而且東非到沖繩與東加。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 March 2015

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

更多資訊

俗名
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新陳代謝
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生態毒物學
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孕卵數

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養殖資訊
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.6 - 29, mean 28 (based on 1436 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.01247 - 0.01837), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.17-0.27; tm=2-3.8; tmax=15).
Prior r = 0.73, 95% CL = 0.48 - 1.10, Based on 3 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.