Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate)
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; non migratori; distribuzione batimetrica ? - 40 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 33°E - 93°E
Indian Ocean: including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf south to Durban, South Africa, then east to North Bay Reef, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Reports of this species elsewhere are probably due to misidentification.
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm 21.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2295); common length : 25.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2295)
Spine dorsali (totale): 10; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 9; Spine anali 3; Raggi anali molli: 8. The inner surface of the pectoral fin base is densely scaled; posterior angle of the operculum is fully scaled; cheeks without scales. Color of body is dark gray or yellow-brown, head is brown-gray. The centers of scales are lighter. Sometimes there is an irregular pattern of broken dusky bars becoming whitish on the lower part of the body. The pectoral and pelvic fins are white of pinkish. The dorsal and anal fins are mottled white or yellowish with reddish edge. The caudal fin has indistinct reddish bands.
Found in sandy areas near reefs during daytime, sometimes in small groups. At night, they are solitary and range over reef-flats and slopes where they feed primarily on echinoderms, mollusks and crustaceans (Ref. 2295). The taxonomy of this species has been considerably confused.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Exhibits juvenile hermaphroditism (Ref. 107020).
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 29.2, mean 27.2 (based on 250 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .