Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas)
(Cods) > Merlucciidae
(Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Macruronus: Greek, makros = great + Greek, onos = hake.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas; estuarina bentopelágico; oceanódromo; intervalo de profundidade 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 26566), usually 200 - 700 m (Ref. 9563). Subtropical; 15°S - 55°S, 111°E - 173°W (Ref. 58452)
Southwest Pacific: New Zealand and southern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm ?, range 65 - 70 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 1371); 130.0 cm TL (female); common length : 80.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 1371); peso máx. Publicado: 1.5 kg (Ref. 1371); peso máx. Publicado: 1.5 kg; Idade máx. registada: 25 anos (Ref. 6390)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 12 - 13; Raios dorsais moles (total): 96-106; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais moles: 89 - 93; Vértebras: 78 - 81. Dorsal surface silvery, with a purple or blue-green tinge; plank and belly silvery; fins darker. Body very elongate and compressed with a tapering tail, dorsal and anal fins confluent with the caudal fin (Ref. 33856).
Appear to live usually on or near the bottom, but may occasionally move up into mid-waters. Large adult fish generally occur deeper than 400 m, while juveniles may be found in shallower water (Ref. 9072), more commonly found in large estuaries and bays, and may even enter freshwaters (Ref. 1371). Juvenile specimens and especially adults belonging to the American subspecies, have been caught from the coastal zone to 110 m (Ref. 58452). Form schools. Feed primarily on lantern fishes. In New Zealand, it feeds in midwater on small fish, crustaceans and squid. Oviparous, spawn 1 million eggs on the average which are released all at one time (Ref. 6390). Utilized fresh and frozen; can be steamed, fried, cooked in microwave and baked (Ref. 9988).
Female blue grenadier produce about 1 million eggs on average, which are all released at once (Ref. 6390).
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para o homem
Pescarias: altamente comercial
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.8 - 12.5, mean 8 (based on 300 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00236 - 0.00586), b=2.99 (2.85 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.5 (4.7 - 8.9) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 17 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (K=0.12-0.2; tm=3-7; tmax=25; Fec = 1,000,000).
Prior r = 0.31, 95% CL = 0.20 - 0.49, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .