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Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758

Greater pipefish
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Syngnathus acus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Syngnathus acus
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Syngnathiformes (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater demersaal; standvastig (Ref. 88171); diepteverspreiding 0 - 110 m (Ref. 4281), usually 3 - 12 m.   Subtropical; 71°N - 35°S, 19°W - 42°E

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Eastern Atlantic: Norway, Faroes and British Isles to Western Sahara, Senegambia, and from Namibia to Cape of Good Hope and northward to the coast of Zululand in the western Indian Ocean (Ref. 4127). Also throughout the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black seas. Despite literature records, occurrence in the Indo-Pacific outside South African waters lacks conclusive evidence (Ref. 4281).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?, range 7 - 25.6 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 35388)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 33-42; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 3. Light greenish to dark brown in color with variable markings (Ref. 4281). Snout cylindrical, equal to or less than eye diameter. With 18 - 19 body rings between head and dorsal fin (Ref. 35388). The snake pipefish (Entelurus aequoreus) is distinguished by the lack of pectoral and anal fins (Ref. 88171). An elongated bump on top of head behind eye (Ref. 59043).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Found in coastal and estuarine waters to depths of at least 110 m (Ref. 4281); on sand, mud and rough bottoms. Common amongst algae and eel-grass (Zostera) (Refs. 4146, 6733, 88187). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans (Ref. 85544).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Ovoviviparous; reproducing on average 3 times each year (Ref. 89328). Several females depositing partial clutches to a male’s brood pouch under the tail (Refs. 205, 31201). Up to 400 eggs may be found in a single pouch (Ref. 89329). Brooding males occur mainly between May and July (Refs. 31201, 58137). During the breeding season, both males and females were observed to remain low amongst the seagrass in one meadow (Ref. 31201). Gestation period lasts about 5 weeks and size at birth is 1.7- 3.5 cm (Refs. 58137, 88187, 89330). Aquarium experiments have shown that new born young are benthic, remaining close to the bottom Ref. 89330).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 07 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 10.3 - 22.6, mean 17.7 (based on 934 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00033 (0.00025 - 0.00044), b=3.14 (3.08 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (Fec=200).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .