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Spicara smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Picarel
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Spicara smaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Spicara smaris (Picarel)
Spicara smaris
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Nombres comunes | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterígios (peces con aletas radiadas) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecología

; marino; rango de profundidad 15 - 328 m (Ref. 56504).   Subtropical; 47°N - 20°N, 19°W - 42°E

Distribución Países | Áreas FAO | Ecosistemas | Ocurrencias, apariciones | Point map | Introducciones | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: entire Mediterranean, the Black Sea, southern Sea of Azov, and Atlantic coasts from Portugal to Morocco, including the Canary Islands and Madeira (Ref. 7349).

Length at first maturity / Tamaño / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 3397); common length : 14.0 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 3397)

Biología     Glosario (por ej. epibenthic)

Depth range from 15-170 m but up to depth of 328 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Inhabit Posidonia beds and muddy bottoms. Occur in schools except during breeding (Ref. 7081).

Life cycle and mating behavior Madurez | Reproducción | Puesta | Huevos | Fecundidad | Larva

Spawns on detritic sandy bottoms, where the nests are excavated. A brightly colored male actively guards each nest, while females and some males swim above the area. At the end of the incubation period, the males lose their coloration, group into large schools and move to feeding places (Ref. 7081). Also Ref. 103751.

Main reference Upload your references | Referencias | Coordinador | Colaboradores

Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 August 2009

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Pesquerías: escaso valor comercial; pesca deportiva: si
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Más información

Nombres comunes
Sinónimos
Metabolismo
Despredadores
Ecotoxicología
Reproducción
Madurez
Puesta
Agregación para la puesta
Fecundidad
Huevos
Egg development
Age/Size
Crecimiento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometría
Morfología
Larva
Dinámica larvaria
Reclutamiento
Abundancia
Referencias
Acuicultura
Perfil de acuicultura
Razas
Genética
Frecuencias de alelos
heritabilidad
Enfermedades
Procesamiento
Mass conversion
Colaboradores
Imágenes
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sonidos
Ciguatera
Velocidad
Tipo de natación
Superficie branquial
Otolitos
Cerebros
Visión

Herramientas

Special reports

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Fuentes de Internet

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.8 - 17.8, mean 14.4 (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01040 - 0.01327), b=3.00 (2.97 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nivel trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.5 (1.3 - 4.7) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
Resiliencia (Ref. 120179):  Medio, población duplicada en un tiempo mínimo de 1.4-4.4 años (K=0.15-3.07(?); tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.42, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.63, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.