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Spicara smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Picarel
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Spicara smaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Spicara smaris
Picture by Patzner, R.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 深度上下限 15 - 328 m (Ref. 56504).   亞熱帶的; 47°N - 20°N, 19°W - 42°E

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Eastern Atlantic: entire Mediterranean, the Black Sea, southern Sea of Azov, and Atlantic coasts from Portugal to Morocco, including the Canary Islands and Madeira (Ref. 7349).
東大西洋: 來自葡萄牙到摩洛哥的整個的地中海,黑海,亞速海南部與大西洋的海岸, 包括加納利群島與馬得拉群島.(參考文獻 7349)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3397); common length : 14.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3397)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Depth range from 15-170 m but up to depth of 328 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Inhabit Posidonia beds and muddy bottoms. Occur in schools except during breeding (Ref. 7081).

来自 15-170 公尺的深度范围但是在爱奥尼亚的海洋东部中提高到深度 328 公尺.(参考文献 56504) 栖息于 Posidonia 床与泥底部。 成群出现除了在繁殖的时候之外.(参考文献 7081)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawns on detritic sandy bottoms, where the nests are excavated. A brightly colored male actively guards each nest, while females and some males swim above the area. At the end of the incubation period, the males lose their coloration, group into large schools and move to feeding places (Ref. 7081). Also Ref. 103751.東大西洋: 來自葡萄牙到摩洛哥的整個的地中海,黑海,亞速海南部與大西洋的海岸, 包括加納利群島與馬得拉群島.(參考文獻 7349)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 August 2009

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
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遗传率
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加工
Mass conversion
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Otoliths
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眼睛色素

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.8 - 17.8, mean 14.4 (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01040 - 0.01327), b=3.00 (2.97 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.5 (1.3 - 4.7) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.15-3.07(?); tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.42, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.63, Based on 5 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.