分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995;
Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001;
Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba
et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海; 深さの範囲 15 - 328 m (Ref. 56504). Subtropical; 47°N - 20°N, 19°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: entire Mediterranean, the Black Sea, southern Sea of Azov, and Atlantic coasts from Portugal to Morocco, including the Canary Islands and Madeira (Ref. 7349).
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3397); common length : 14.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3397)
Depth range from 15-170 m but up to depth of 328 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Inhabit Posidonia beds and muddy bottoms. Occur in schools except during breeding (Ref. 7081).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Spawns on detritic sandy bottoms, where the nests are excavated. A brightly colored male actively guards each nest, while females and some males swim above the area. At the end of the incubation period, the males lose their coloration, group into large schools and move to feeding places (Ref. 7081). Also Ref. 103751.
Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
水産業: 少数商業の; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.8 - 17.8, mean 14.4 (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01040 - 0.01327), b=3.00 (2.97 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.5 (1.3 - 4.7) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.15-3.07(?); tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.42, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.63, Based on 5 stock assessments.
弱み (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .