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Spicara smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Picarel
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Spicara smaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Spicara smaris (Picarel)
Spicara smaris
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names आम नाम | उपशब्द | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ऐकटीनोप्टीरेजी (रेज़-फिन्नढ मछलियाँ) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range पारिस्थितिकी

; समुद्री; गहराई सीमा 15 - 328 m (Ref. 56504).   Subtropical; 47°N - 20°N, 19°W - 42°E

वितरण देश | ऐफ ऐ ओ क्षेत्र | Ecosystems | संयोग | Point map | भूमिका | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: entire Mediterranean, the Black Sea, southern Sea of Azov, and Atlantic coasts from Portugal to Morocco, including the Canary Islands and Madeira (Ref. 7349).

Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age

Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 3397); common length : 14.0 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 3397)

जीवविज्ञान     शब्द संग्रह (उदाहरणार्थ epibenthic)

Depth range from 15-170 m but up to depth of 328 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Inhabit Posidonia beds and muddy bottoms. Occur in schools except during breeding (Ref. 7081).

Life cycle and mating behavior परिपक्व अवधि | पुनरुत्पत्ति | मछलीऔ का अंडे देना | अंडे | Fecundity | लार्वा

Spawns on detritic sandy bottoms, where the nests are excavated. A brightly colored male actively guards each nest, while females and some males swim above the area. At the end of the incubation period, the males lose their coloration, group into large schools and move to feeding places (Ref. 7081). Also Ref. 103751.

Main reference Upload your references | संदर्भ | संयोजक | सहयोगीयो

Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 August 2009

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

मात्स्यिकी: लघु वाणिज्य; आखेट मत्स्य: हां
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

अधिक जानकारी

आम नाम
उपशब्द
चपायचय
परभक्षी
ईकोटोकसीकोलौजी
पुनरुत्पत्ति
परिपक्व अवधि
मछलीऔ का अंडे देना
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
अंडे
Egg development
Age/Size
बाढ़
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
मौरफोमैटरिक्स
आकृति विज्ञान
लार्वा
लारवल गतिकी
भर्ती
बहुतायत
संदर्भ
जलीयकृषि
जलीयकृषि रूपरेखा
खींच
आनुवंशिकी
ऐल्लि आवृतियाँ
हैरेटिबिलटी
बीमारी
प्रक्रमण
Mass conversion
सहयोगीयो
तस्वीरे
Stamps, Coins Misc.
ध्वनि
सिगुयटिरा
रफ्तार
तैरने के प्रकार
गिल क्षेत्र
Otoliths
दिमाग
दृष्टि

साधन

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इंटरनेट स्रोत

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.8 - 17.8, mean 14.4 (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01040 - 0.01327), b=3.00 (2.97 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.5 (1.3 - 4.7) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179):  माध्यम, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 1.4 - 4.4 वर्ष। (K=0.15-3.07(?); tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.42, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.63, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.