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Spicara smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Picarel
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Spicara smaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Spicara smaris (Picarel)
Spicara smaris
Picture by Patzner, R.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Strahlenflosser) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser; tiefenbereich 15 - 328 m (Ref. 56504).   Subtropical; 47°N - 20°N, 19°W - 42°E

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: entire Mediterranean, the Black Sea, southern Sea of Azov, and Atlantic coasts from Portugal to Morocco, including the Canary Islands and Madeira (Ref. 7349).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 3397); common length : 14.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 3397)

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Depth range from 15-170 m but up to depth of 328 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Inhabit Posidonia beds and muddy bottoms. Occur in schools except during breeding (Ref. 7081).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Spawns on detritic sandy bottoms, where the nests are excavated. A brightly colored male actively guards each nest, while females and some males swim above the area. At the end of the incubation period, the males lose their coloration, group into large schools and move to feeding places (Ref. 7081). Also Ref. 103751.

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator | Partner

Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 120744)

  nicht bedroht (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 August 2009

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: weniger kommerziell; Sportfisch: ja
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.8 - 17.8, mean 14.4 (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01040 - 0.01327), b=3.00 (2.97 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.5 (1.3 - 4.7) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  mittel, Verdopplung der Population dauert 1,4 - 4,4 Jahre. (K=0.15-3.07(?); tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.42, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.63, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Medium.