Spicara smaris, Picarel : fisheries, gamefish

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Spicara smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Picarel
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Spicara smaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Spicara smaris (Picarel)
Spicara smaris
Picture by Patzner, R.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies) 鯛科 (Porgies)
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 深度上下限 15 - 328 m (Ref. 56504).   亞熱帶的; 47°N - 20°N, 19°W - 42°E

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Eastern Atlantic: entire Mediterranean, the Black Sea, southern Sea of Azov, and Atlantic coasts from Portugal to Morocco, including the Canary Islands and Madeira (Ref. 7349).
東大西洋: 來自葡萄牙到摩洛哥的整個的地中海,黑海,亞速海南部與大西洋的海岸, 包括加納利群島與馬得拉群島.(參考文獻 7349)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3397); common length : 14.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3397)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Depth range from 15-170 m but up to depth of 328 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Inhabit Posidonia beds and muddy bottoms. Occur in schools except during breeding (Ref. 7081).

棲息於 Posidonia 床與泥底部。 成群出現除了在繁殖的時候之外.(參考文獻 7081)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawns on detritic sandy bottoms, where the nests are excavated. A brightly colored male actively guards each nest, while females and some males swim above the area. At the end of the incubation period, the males lose their coloration, group into large schools and move to feeding places (Ref. 7081). Also Ref. 103751.東大西洋: 來自葡萄牙到摩洛哥的整個的地中海,黑海,亞速海南部與大西洋的海岸, 包括加納利群島與馬得拉群島.(參考文獻 7349)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 August 2009

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

更多資訊

俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

卵發育
參考文獻
養殖
養殖資訊
品種
遺傳學
基因序列
遺傳率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
聲音
神經毒
速度
泳型
鰓區
Otoliths
腦重體重比
眼睛色素

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.8 - 17.8, mean 14.4 (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01040 - 0.01327), b=3.00 (2.97 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.5 (1.3 - 4.7) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.15-3.07(?); tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.42, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.63, Based on 5 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.