Lớp phụ (Subclass) cá vây tia
(Silversides) > Atherinidae
(Silversides) > Atherininae
Etymology: Atherina: Greek, atherina, the Greek name for the eperlane; 1770 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ gần đáy; sống cả ở nước ngọt và nuớc mặn (Ref. 59043); Mức độ sâu 1 - ? m. Subtropical; 53°N - 20°N, 18°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal and Spain to Nouadhibou in Mauritania and Madeira, and throughout the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Isolated populations on coasts of England and the Netherlands (Ref. 5980). Previously, two subspecies were recognized in Russian waters: Atherina boyeri pontica (Eichwald, 1838) from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and Atherina boyeri caspia (Eichwald, 1838) from the Caspian Sea (Ref. 26334).
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 5.8, range 5 - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 30578); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 4 các năm (Ref. 59043)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 7 - 10; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 8-16; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 2; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 10 - 18. Eye diameter wider than snout length (Ref. 35388).
A very euryhaline species, where adults are frequently found in brackish waters and more sporadically in freshwater (Ref. 3788), preferring still or slow flowing waters in freshwater (Ref. 59043). They are found in lower parts of rivers, estuaries, coastal lakes and sea; pelagic in lakes (Ref. 59043). Adults occur in great schools. They are carnivorous, feeding on small crustaceans, worms, mollusks (Ref. 5980) and fish larvae (Ref. 35388) in lakes and estuaries, and on benthos in rivers (Ref. 59043). Can usually live 1 to 2 years, rarely up to 4 years. Some populations undergo spawning migrations into estuaries. Mature individuals are fractional spawners, larger individuals spawn for a longer period. Eggs are demersal, with long hairy appendages attaching them to the substrate consisting of filamentous algae, often at depths of 2 to 6 m. Larvae are pelagic often forming schools close to the shores (Ref. 59043).
Maugé, L.A., 1990. Atherinidae. p. 604-605. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4499)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: Tính thương mại
Các công cụ
Các nguồn internet
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.9 - 21, mean 18.3 (based on 136 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00454 - 0.00665), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.36 se; Based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 69278
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (K=0.8; tm=1; tmax=4;).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.38 - 0.85, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .