Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Lophiiformes
(Anglerfishes) > Oneirodidae
Etymology: Chaenophryne: Greek, 'chaeno' or 'chaino' = to gape + Greek, 'phryne' = toad (alluring to a "gaping toad") (Ref. 86949). More on authors: Regan & Trewavas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 200 - 1000 m (Ref. 86949). Deep-water
Tropical and subtropical parts of all oceans.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 75756)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 5 - 6. Distinguishing characteristics of metamorphosed female: esca with single elongate internally pigmented anterior appendage, approximately one-fourth to nearly one-third length of escal bulb, trilobed distally with 3 round translucent windows; anterior escal appendage flanked laterally by an elongate unpigmented swelling; absence of medial escal appendages; posterior escal appendages with swollen basal portion and compressed distal crest, with terminal, anteriorly directed crescent-shaped filament and a pair of anterior lobes each bearing none to several filaments; 2-3 filamentous anterolateral escal appendage on each side; basal series of 7-12 filaments on each side; total number of teeth in upper jaw 25-51, lower jaw with 33-53 teeth; ratio between number of teeth in upper jaw to lower jaw teeth 0.76-0.98; vomerine teeth 4-8; length of illicium 32.8-47.4% SL; escal bulb width 4.5-6.5% SL (Ref. 86949).
Also mesopelagic (Ref. 10524).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bertelsen, E., 1990. Oneirodidae. p. 498-507. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post, and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 10524)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.5 - 12.4, mean 9.3 (based on 50 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .