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Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes, 1847)

Toli shad
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Tenualosa toli   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Tenualosa toli (Toli shad)
Tenualosa toli
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Tenualosa: Latin, tenuis = thin + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marino; acqua dolce; salmastro; anadromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 10 - ? m (Ref. 26929).   Tropical; 23°N - 7°S, 70°E - 119°E (Ref. 54917)

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: India to the Java Sea and the South China Sea. Newly recorded from Mauritius (Ref. 33390). May be found in Cambodian Mekong near the Viet Nam border (Ref. 12693).

Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm 29.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 12693); common length : 40.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 4832); Età massima riportata: 2 anni (Ref. 26929)

Short description Morfologia | Morfometria

Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Spine anali 0. Belly with 28 to 30 scutes. A distinct median notch in upper jaw, which distinguishes it from other similar clupeids, except Hilsa kelee. Gill rakers fine but not numerous, 60 to 100 on lower part of arch. Caudal fin short. At most, a dark diffuse mark behind gill opening, but no other spots on flank.

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Inhabits fast-flowing, turbid estuaries and adjacent coastal waters (Ref. 26929). Schooling in coastal waters, euryhaline and perhaps anadromous, ascending rivers to breed (but in some areas fishery workers claim that it does not). A protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Presumably its biology is similar to that of T. ilisha, but the fewer gill rakers suggest that it takes larger food organisms. Reported to feed on zooplankton (Ref. 58784). More data needed especially since it is not always distinguished from T. ilisha, especially at juvenile stages. Marketed fresh or dried-salted.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

A semelparous species, but although each individual spawns only once and then dies, the spawning season for the species as a whole lasts from May to November (Ref. 26929). A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Sex change occurs at a length of 11.0 cm TL and 1.24 years of age (Ref. 55367).

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore | Collaboratori

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Vulnerabile, vedi Lista Rossa IUCN (VU) (B2ab(iii,v)); Date assessed: 06 March 2018

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Pesca: elevato interesse commerciale
FAO(pesca: production, species profile; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Nomi Comuni
Sinonimi
Metabolismo
Predatori
Ecotossicologia
Riproduzione
Maturità
Deposizione
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Uova
Egg development
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
Cervelli
Vista

Strumenti

Special reports

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Fonti Internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Database Nazionali | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, ricerca) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 27.1 - 29.2, mean 28.6 (based on 466 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00620 - 0.01613), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 69278):  Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (K=0.7; assuming tmax>3, fec > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.