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Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich, 1825)

Bonga shad
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Ethmalosa fimbriata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bonga shad)
Ethmalosa fimbriata
Picture by Durand, J.-D.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Ethmalosa: Greek, ethmos, -ou = sieve, also the ethmoides bone + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水; 降海洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - ? m (Ref. 54436), usually 0 - 50 m (Ref. 54436).   熱帶; 25°N - 8°S, 17°W - 14°E (Ref. 54436)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Atlantic Ocean: Eastern central Atlantic Ocean, from Dakhla in Western Sahara southward to Lobito Bay in Angola (Ref. 188, 5286, 81269, 81631), occasionally entering freshwater (Ref. 3509). Reports from Cape Verde Islands are based on an erroneous type locality for Clupea fimbriata by Bowdich (1825) which was followed by later authors (Ref. 188, 5286).
中東大西洋: 被對應到 25 °C 年度等溫線的最北與最南的極限的西撒哈拉的達赫拉到至少安哥拉的洛比托; 矮小的族群在貝南的瑙固維湖存在。 維德角記錄以錯誤的模式標本產地為依據為 Bowdich 的 篩鯡〔Ethmalosa fimbriata〕 - 跟隨著較後的命名者了。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 17.0  range ? - 18.5 cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1989); common length : 25.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 187); 最大体重: 1.0 kg (Ref. 1989)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 16-19; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 19 - 23; 脊椎骨: 42 - 44. Diagnosis: Ethmalosa fimbriata is distinguished from other clupeids by the presence of a median notch on the upper jaw, into which tip of lower jaw fits (Ref. 188, 81269). A faint dark spot behind gill cover, sometimes followed by others; dorsal fin tip black; caudal fin deep chrome yellow; golden tints on body (Ref. 188). Ethmalosa fimbriata resembles Sardinella aurita, Sardinella rouxi and especially Sardinella maderensis, but these are more slender, have a rounded upper jaw which is not notched and the upper gillrakers are not bent upward like an elbow (Ref. 188).
上颌有明显的中央凹槽, 进入那一个之内下颌的顶端适合。 下鳃耙长的,细且多, 大约 3 倍长于鳃丝; 上面的鳃耙弯曲锐利向上, V 形的。 尾鳍深的铬, 顶端长而尖的。 一个模糊的深色斑点在后鳃盖;(有时跟随着其它) 背鳍顶端黑色; 在身体上的金色光泽。 鳞甲: 16-19 腹鳍前的,10-13 后。 在侧线列 37-42 中的鳞片.

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Ethmalosa fimbriata is found in fairly shallow coastal waters, lagoons and estuaries, and sometimes also in lower courses of coastal rivers, even more than 300 km up rivers (Ref. 187, 188, 81269, 81631). It feeds principally on phytoplankton, chiefly diatoms, filtered by the very fine gillraker sieve (Ref. 187, 188, 3166). It breeds throughout the year in waters of salinities 3.5-38 ppt, but with peaks in at least some areas; spawns in the sea, in estuaries and in rivers (Ref. 188). The largest fisheries are in Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Nigeria and Cameroon, mainly in the dry season (Ref. 188).

出现于近岸水域,泻湖与超过 300 公里从河口向上 (例如冈比亚河). 滤食浮游植物, 主要地硅藻。 全年繁殖在盐度 3.5-38 ppt 的水域中, 在至少一些区域中但是有峰巅。 产卵在海中, 在河口与河中。 吃浮游植物, 主要地硅藻。 在市场上销售生鲜地了, 也烟熏了而且乾制了。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Breeds all year in waters of salinities 3.5 to 38 ppt, but with peaks in at least some areas, becoming progressively later to south. Spawns in the sea, in estuaries and in rivers.中東大西洋: 被對應到 25 °C 年度等溫線的最北與最南的極限的西撒哈拉的達赫拉到至少安哥拉的洛比托; 矮小的族群在貝南的瑙固維湖存在。 維德角記錄以錯誤的模式標本產地為依據為 Bowdich 的 篩鯡〔Ethmalosa fimbriata〕 - 跟隨著較後的命名者了。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 May 2009

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 实验的
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.2 - 27.9, mean 26.4 (based on 180 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00824 - 0.01107), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.20 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  高度, 族群倍增时间少于 15个月 (K=0.25-0.36; tm=1; Fec=16,000).
Prior r = 0.93, 95% CL = 0.61 - 1.39, Based on 5 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   High.