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Alosa sapidissima (Wilson, 1811)

American shad
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Alosa sapidissima   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Alosa sapidissima (American shad)
Alosa sapidissima
Picture by Flescher, D.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) 鯡形目 (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) 鯡科 (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335);  sapidissima: sapidissima meaning most delicious (Ref. 1998).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 250 m (Ref. 6793).   溫帶; 54°N - 28°N, 84°W - 52°W (Ref. 86798)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

North America: Atlantic coast from Labrador, Canada to St. Johns River, Florida, USA; ascends coastal rivers during spring spawning migrations. Introduced into Sacramento River, California in 1870s and has spread along Pacific Coast from Kamchatka, Russia to Todos Santos Bay, Mexico. Landlocked in Millerton Lake, California, USA.
北美洲: 紐芬蘭 (參考文獻 1998) ,聖勞倫斯河與新斯科舍省向南至中央的佛羅里達。 由於引入進入薩克拉門托河與哥倫比亞河, 這種現在在從阿拉斯加的庫克溪 (參考文獻 1998) 到墨西哥的下加利福尼亞與堪察加半島被發現。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 38 - 48.5 cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 6885); 61.7 cm SL (female); common length : 50.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大體重: 5.5 kg (Ref. 7251); 最大年齡: 13 年 (Ref. 72462)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 15-19; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 18 - 24; 脊椎骨: 51 - 60. Moderately compressed, belly with a distinct keel. Lower jaw not rising steeply within mouth. Gill rakers long and slender (fewer in young). Silvery in color with blue or blue-green metallic luster on back (Ref. 1998). A dark spot on shoulder, sometimes followed by several more, or even a second row. Resembles A. pseudoharengus with lower jaw rising steeply within mouth, eyes larger, and fewer lower gill rakers, as also A. aestivalis and A. mediocris (Ref. 188). Silvery, with a green or bluish back (Ref. 7251). Branchiostegal rays 7 (Ref. 4639).
中等側扁, 腹面有一個明顯的龍骨脊。 下頜不陡升在嘴裡面。 鰓耙長且細的.(比較少的當幼魚時) 銀色的顏色有藍色的或背面的藍綠色金屬的光彩.(參考文獻 1998) 在肩上的一個深色斑點,有時跟隨著一些更多, 或甚至第二個列。 用下頜與 A. pseudoharengus 相似陡升在嘴裡面, 眼比較大的, 與較少的下鰓耙, 當也 A. aestivalis A. mediocris.(參考文獻 188) 銀色的, 具有一個綠色或藍色的背面.(參考文獻 7251) 鰓條骨 7.(參考文獻 4639)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Spends most of its life at sea, returning to freshwater streams to breed (Ref. 27547). Inhabits open water of large rivers (Ref. 86798). Non-spawning adults are found in schools near the surface of continental shelf waters in spring, summer and fall (Ref. 7135); also found in brackish waters (Ref. 4607). Newly hatched larvae are found in rivers during the summer; by autumn they enter the sea and remain there until maturity. Juveniles form schools at 20-30 mm TL and gradually move downstream (Ref. 4639). Feeds on plankton, mainly copepods and mysids, occasionally on small fishes. Feeding ceases during upstream spawning migration and resumes during the downstream post-spawning migration (Ref. 1998). Commercially caught in rivers and estuaries during spawning migration (Ref. 1998). Utilized fresh, salted, or smoked. The roe is esteemed. Eaten pan-fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988). Possibly to 375 m depth (Ref. 6793). Parasites found are nematodes, Acanthocephala, copepods and distomes (Ref. 37032).

在海上渡過它生命期的大部份, 回到淡水溪流到繁殖。 (參考文獻 27547) 非產卵期的成魚被發現於大陸棚水域的魚群接近水表面在春天、夏天與秋天;(參考文獻 7135) 也發現於半鹹淡水域。 (參考文獻 4607) 最近孵化了仔魚在夏天期間被發現於河; 在秋天之前,他們進入海洋而且逗留在那裡到成熟。 稚魚在 20-30 mm TL 時形成魚群,而且逐漸地移動順流而下。 (參考文獻 4639) 捕食浮游生物, 主要地橈腳類的動物與糠蝦, 偶然地捕食小魚。 進食在向上游產卵遷移的時候停止而且在向下游的產卵後洄游的時候重新。 (參考文獻 1998) 在產卵遷移的時候商業上捕獲於河與河口。 (參考文獻 1998) 生鮮使用, 鹽醃的, 或煙燻。 魚白被讚賞。 被吃油鍋炸的, 烤的與烘乾的.(參考文獻 9988) 可能地對 375 公尺深.(參考文獻 6793) 發現的寄生蟲是線蟲類,棘頭蟲,橈腳類的動物與雙盤吸蟲。 (參考文獻 37032)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Some shad spawn immediately on entering fresh water while others may undertake fairly long journeys, as much as 630 km upstream, to their favored spawning grounds (Ref. 4607). Enters rivers as early as November (Florida) and as late as May or June in the north, depending on water temperature (peak runs at about 18.5 °C). Spawning occurs at sundown and continues until after midnight. The fish pair and swim close together, releasing eggs and milt (Ref. 27547). Adults descend shortly after spawning, the young in the autumn. Spawning reported from 8-26°C, generally occurs at 12-21°C (Ref. 38954).北美洲: 紐芬蘭 (參考文獻 1998) ,聖勞倫斯河與新斯科舍省向南至中央的佛羅里達。 由於引入進入薩克拉門托河與哥倫比亞河, 這種現在在從阿拉斯加的庫克溪 (參考文獻 1998) 到墨西哥的下加利福尼亞與堪察加半島被發現。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 13 October 2011

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.5 - 11.5, mean 5.6 (based on 113 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00366 - 0.01193), b=2.99 (2.84 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.14; tm=4.7).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.