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(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Mitchill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut; air tawar; payau; anadromus (ruaya dari laut ke air tawar) (Ref. 51243). Temperate; 46°N - 25°N, 82°W - 66°W (Ref. 117467)
Western Atlantic: along the coast from Maine to the St. John's River, Florida, USA (Ref. 188). Possibly in Campobello Island, New New Brunswick, Canada (Ref. 86798).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm 32.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 188); common length : 34.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 188)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 15-20; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 19 - 23; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 53 - 55. Belly with distinct keel of scutes. Lower jaw very prominent, but not rising steeply within mouth; teeth reduced or in upper jaw absent in fishes over 23 cm standard length. A dark spot on shoulder, several obscure dark spots along flank (sometimes missing). Closely resembles A. chrysochloris which has stronger jaw teeth, no shoulder spot and the body depth less than head length (Ref. 188). Silvery, with a dark grayish green back (Ref. 7251).
In freshwater habitat, this species occurs in open water of large rivers (Ref. 86798). Schools of adults are found in marine waters, along the coast; also estuaries, tidal rivers and tributaries during late spring and early summer (Ref. 4639). Juveniles tend to leave nursery areas during summer (Ref. 4639). Feeds on small fishes, also squid, small crabs and other crustaceans, as well as fish eggs. Spawn in tidal freshwater (Patuxent River, Chesapeake Bay in May) (Ref. 188), and return to the sea shortly after (Ref. 4639). Parasites found are nematodes, cestodes and trematodes (Ref. 37032).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
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Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.4 - 25.5, mean 14 (based on 238 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.58 se; Based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278
): sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.3).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .